Myanmar Companies Act

1914-04-01 - Myanmar Companies Act

THE BURMA COMPANIES ACT

[ INDIA ACT VII, 1913] (1st April, 1914)

PART I.

PRELIMINARY

 

1. * * * *

2. (1) In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context, -

Definitions

(1) ) “articles” means the articles of association of a company as originally framed or as altered by special resolution, including, so far as they apply to the company, the regulations contained (as the case may be) in Table B+ in the Schedule annexed to Act No. XIX of 1857 or in Table A+ in the First Schedule annexed to the Indian Companies Act, 1882, or in Table A in the First Schedule annexed to this Act;

(2) “company” means a company formed and registered under this Act or an existing company;

§ (2A) “Burmese company” means –

(a) in the case of a company having a share capital, a company whose entire share capital is, at all times, owned and controlled by the citizens of the Union of Burma, or

(b) in the case of a company limited by guarantee but not having a share capital, a company which is, at all times, owned and controlled by the citizens of the Union of Burma;

§ (2B) “Foreign company” mean –

(a) any company other than a Burmese company or a special company formed under the Special Company Act, 1950, (1950 ပြည့်နှစ် အထူးကုမ္ပဏီ အက်ဥပဒေ) ; or

(b) a company incorporated outside the Union of Burma and having an established place of business in the Union of Burma;


+ The Indian Companies Act, 1913; was extensively amended by the Indian Companies (Amendment)Act, 1936 (India Act XXII, 1936). The latter Act came into force on the 15th January 1937.

 

The provisions of this Act do not apply to co-operative societies, see section 72 of the Co-operative Societies Act (Act XV,1956)

++ These Tables were printed as Appendices I and II to the Indian Companies Act, 1913 (India Act VII, 1913), which appendices were omitted from this Act by the Burma Laws (Adaptation) Act, 1940 (Burma Act XXVII, 1940).

§ Inserted by Act XXIII, 1955.

 

+(2C) “Company carrying on international trade” means a company which has a subsidiary company or branch in a foreign country for the purpose of trading.


(3) “the Court” means the Court having jurisdiction under this Act;

(4) “debenture” includes debenture stock;

(5) “director” includes any person occupying the position of a director by whatever name called;

(6) * * * * *

(7) “existing company” means a company formed and registered under the Indian Companies Act, 1866, + or under any Act or Act repealed thereby, or under the Indian Companies Act, 1882+;

(8) “insurance company” means a company that carries on the business of insurance either solely or in common with any other business or businesses;

(9) “manager” means a person who subject to the control and direction of the directors has the management of the whole affairs of a company, and includes a director or any other person occupying the position of a manager by whatever name called and whether under a contract of service or not;

(9A) “managing agent” means a person, firm or company entitled to the management of the whole affairs of a company, by virtue of an agreement with the company and under the control and direction except to the extent, if any, otherwise provided for in the agreement and includes any person, firm or company occupying such position by whatever name called;

Explanation. – If a person occupying the position of a managing agent calls himself a manager he shall nevertheless be regarded as managing agent and not as manager for the purposes of this Act;

(10) “memorandum” means the memorandum of association of a company as originally framed or as altered in pursuance of the provisions of this Act;

(11) “officer” includes any director, managing agent, manager or secretary but, save in sections 235, 236, and 237, does not include an auditor;

(12) “prescribed” means, as respects the provisions of this Act relating to the winding up of companies, prescribed by rules made by the High Court, and, as respects the other provisions of this Act, prescribed by the President of the Union.


+ Inserted by Act XXIII, 1955 ++ The Indian Companies Act, 1866, was repealed by the Indian Companies Act, 1882, which in turn was repealed by the Indian Companies Act, 1913


(13) “private company” means a company which by its articles –

(a) restricts the right to transfer the shares, if any; and

(b) limits the number of its members to fifty not including persons who are in the employment of the company; and

(c) prohibits any invitation to the public to subscribe for the shares, if any, or debentures of the company:

(13A) “public company” means a company incorporated under this Act or under the Indian Companies Act, 1882*. or under the Indian Companies Act,1866*, or under any Act repealed there by, which is not a private company;

(14) “prospectus” means any prospectus, notice, circular, advertisement or other invitation, offering to the public for subscription or purchase any shares or debentures of a company but shall not include any trade advertisement which shows on the face of it that a formal prospectus has been prepared and filed;

(15) “the Registrar” means a Registrar or assistant Registrar performing under this Act the duty of registration of companies;

(16) “share” means share in the share capital of the company, and includes stock except when a distinction between stock and shares is expressed or implied;

(17) “Scheduled Bank” means a bank which has been notified under section 38 of the Union Bank of Burma Act, 1952, as a scheduled bank;

(18) “this Act” means, as respects any period before the coming into operation of the Constitution, The Burma Companies Act as then in force in the Union of Burma.

(2) Where the assets of a company consist in whole or in part of shares in another company, whether held directly or through a nominee and whether that other company is a company within the meaning of this Act or not, and

(a) the amount of the shares so held is at the time when the accounts of the holding company are made up more than fifty per cent of the issued share capital of that other company or such as to entitle the company to more than fifty per cent of the voting power in that other company, or

(b) the company has power (not being power vested in it by virtue only of the provisions of a debenture trust deed or by virtue of shares issued to it for the purpose in pursuance of those provision) directly or indirectly to appoint the majority of the directions of that other company,


*The Indian Companies Act, 1866, was repealed by the Indian Companies Act 1882, which in turn was repealed by the Indian Companies Act, 1913.

 

+ Substituted by Act IX, 1952.`

 

++ Substituted by the Union of Burma (Adaptation of Laws) Order, 1948.


that other company shall be deemed to be a subsidiary company within the meaning of this Act, and the expression “subsidiary company” in this Act means a company in the case of which the condition of this sub-section are satisfied and includes a subsidiary company of such company;

Provided that where a company the ordinary business of which includes the lending of money holds shares in another company as security only, no account shall, for the purpose of determining under this section whether that other company is a subsidiary company, be taken of the shares so held.

3. (1) The Court having jurisdiction under this Act shall be the High Court;

Provided that the President of the Union may, by notification in the Gazette and subject to such restrictions and conditions as he thinks fit, empower any District Court to exercise all or any of the jurisdiction by this Act conferred upon the Court, and in that case such District Court shall, as regards the jurisdiction so conferred, be the Court in respect of all companies having their registered offices in the district.

(2) For the purposes of jurisdiction to wind up companies, the expression “registered office” means the place which has longest been the registered office of the company during the six months immediately preceding the presentation of the petition for winding up.

(3) Nothing in this section shall invalidate a proceeding by reason of its being taken in a wrong Court.

PART II.

CONSTITUTION AND INCORPORATION

4. (1) No company, association or partnership consisting of more than ten persons shall be formed for the purpose of carrying on the business of banking unless it is registered as a company under this Act [ * * * * *]+


+ Omitted by the Union of Burma (Adaptation of Laws) Order, 1948.


(2) No company, association or partnership consisting of more than twenty persons shall be formed for the purpose of carrying on any other business that has for its object the acquisition of gain by the company, association or partnership, or by the individual members thereof, unless it is registered as a company under this Act [ * * * *] +.

(3) This section shall not apply to a joint family carrying on joint family trade or business, and where two or more such joint families form a partnership, in computing the number of persons for the purposes of this section, minor members of such families shall be excluded.

(4) Every member of a company, association or partnership carrying on business in contravention of this section shall be personally liable for all liabilities incurred in such business.

(5) Any person who is a member of a company, association or partnership formed in contravention of this section shall be punishable with fine not exceeding one thousand rupees.

Memorandum of Association

5. Any seven or more persons (or, where the company to be formed will be a private company, any two or more persons) associated for any lawful purpose may, by subscribing their names to a memorandum of association and otherwise complying with the requirements of this Act in respect of registration form an incorporated company, with or without limited liability (that is to say), either

(i) a company having the liability of this members limited by the memorandum to the amount, if any, unpaid on the shares respectively held by them (in this Act termed a company limited by shares); or

(ii) a company having the liability of its members limited by the memorandum to such amount as the members may respectively thereby undertake to contribute to the assets of the company in the event of its being wound up (in this Act termed a company limited by guarantee); or

(iii) a company not having any limit on the liability of its members (in this Act termed and unlimited company);

6. In the case of a company limited by shares –

(1) the memorandum shall state –

(i) the name of the company, with “Limited” as the last word in its name;

(ii) that the registered office of the company will be situated in the Union of Burma;

(iii) the objects of the company;


+ Omitted by the Union of Burma (Adaptation of Laws) Order, 1948.


(iv) That the liability of the members is limited;

(v) The amount of share capital with which the company proposes to be registered, and the division thereof into shares of a fixed amount;

(2) no subscriber of the memorandum shall take less than one share;

(3) each subscriber shall write opposite to his name the number of shares he takes.

7. In the case of company limited by guarantee –

(1) the memorandum shall state –

(i) the name of the company, with “Limited” as the last word in its name;

(ii) that the registered office of the company will be situated in the Union of Burma;

(iii) the objects of the company;

(iv) that the liability of the members is limited;

(vi) that each member undertakes to contribute to the assets of the company in the event of its being wound up while he is a member, or within one year afterwards, for payment of the debts and liabilities of the company contracted before he ceases to be a member, and of the costs, charges and expenses of winding up, and for adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves, such amounts as may be required not exceeding a specified amount;

(2) if the company has a share capital –

(i) the memorandum shall also state the amount of share capital with the company proposes to be registered and the division thereof into shares of a fixed amount;

(ii) no subscriber of the memorandum shall take less than one share;

(iii) each subscriber shall write opposite to his name the number of shares he takes.

8. In the case of an unlimited company –

(1the memorandum shall state –

(i) )the name of the company;

(ii) that the registered office of the company will be situated in the Union of Burma;

(iii) the objects of the company;

(2) if the company has a share capital –

(i) no subscriber of the memorandum shall take less than one share;

(ii) each subscriber shall write opposite to his name the number of shares he takes.

9. The memorandum shall –

(a)be printed both in Burmese and English;

(b) be divided into paragraphs numbered consecutively, and

(c) be signed by each subscriber (who shall add his address, nationality and description) in the presence of at least one witness who shall attest the signature.

10. A company shall not alter the conditions contained in its memorandum except in the cases and in the mode and to the extent for which express provision is made in this Act;

Provided that any provision in the memorandum relating to the appointment of a manager or managing agent, and other matters of a like nature incidental or subsidiary to the main objects of the company, shall not be deemed to be such condition.

11. (1) A company shall not be registered by a name identical with that by which a company in existence is already registered, or so nearly resembling that name as to be calculated to deceive, except where the company in existence is in the course of being dissolved and signifies its consent in such manner as the Registrar requires.

(2) If a company, through inadvertence or otherwise, is, without such consent as aforesaid, registered by a name identical with that by which a company in existence is previously registered, or so nearly resembling it as to be calculated to deceive, the first-mentioned company may, with the sanction of the Registrar, change its name.

(3) Except with the previous consent in writing of the President of the Union no company shall be registered by a name which –

(a) contains any of the following words, namely, “Crown”, “Emperor”, “Empire”, “Empress”, Federal”, “Imperial”, “King,” “Queen”, “Royal”, “State”, “Reserve Bank”, [“Union”, “President”] ++, or any word which suggests or is calculated to suggest the patronage of His Britannic Majesty [ * *] § or any connection with His Britannic Majesty’s Government [or the Government of Burma or of any Department thereof;]++ or


+ Substituted by Act XXIII, 1955

 

5++ Substituted by the Union of Burma (Adaptation of Laws) Order, 1948.

§ Omitted ibid.

 


(b) contains the word “Municipal” or “Chartered,” or any word which suggests or is calculated to suggest connection with any municipality or other local authority or with any society or body incorporated by Royal Charter:

Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to companies registered before the commencement of this Act.

(4) Any company may, by special resolution and subject to the approval of the President of the Union signified in writing, change its name.

(5) Where a company changes its name, the Registrar shall enter the new name on the register in place of the former name, and shall issue a certificate of incorporation altered to meet the circumstances of the case. On the issue of such a certificate, the change of name shall be complete.

(6) The change of name shall not affect any rights or obligations of the company, or render, defective any legal proceedings by or against the company; and any legal proceedings that might have been continued or commenced against it by its former name may be continued or commenced against it by its new name.

12 (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, a company may, by special resolution, alter the provisions of its memorandum with respect to the objects of the company, so far as may be required to enable it –

(a)to carry on its business more economically or more efficiently; or

(b) to attain its main purpose by new or improved means; or

(c) to enlarge or change the local area of its operations; or

(d) to carry on some business which under existing circumstances may conveniently or advantageously be combined with the business of the company; or

(e) to restrict or abandon any of the objects specified in the memorandum; or

(f) to sell or dispose of the whole or any part of the undertaking of the company; or

(g) to amalgamate with any other company or body of persons.

(2) The alteration shall not take effect until and except in so far as it is confirmed by the Court on petition.

(3) Before confirming the alteration, the Court must be satisfied

(a) that sufficient notice has been given to every holder of debentures of the company, and to any persons or class of persons whose interests will, in the opinion of the Court, be affected by the alteration; and

(b) that, with respect to every creditor who in the opinion of the Court is entitled to object, and who signifies his objection in manner directed by the Court, either his consent to the alteration has been obtained or his debt or claim has been discharged or has determined, or has been secured to the satisfaction of the Court;

Provided that the Court may, in the case of any person or class, for special reason, dispense with the notice required by this section.

13. .The Court may make an order confirming the alteration either wholly or in part, and on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit, and may make such order as to costs as it thinks proper.

14. The Court shall, in exercising its discretion under sections 12 and 13, have regard to the rights and interests of the members of the company or of any class of them, as well as to the rights and interests of the creditors, and may, if it thinks fit, adjourn the proceedings in order that an arrangement may be made to the satisfaction of the Court for the purchase of the interests of dissentient members; and may give such directions and make such orders as it may think expedient for facilitation or carrying into effect any such arrangement:

Provided that no part of the capital of the company may be expended in any such purchase.

15. (1) A certified copy of the order confirming the alteration together with a printed copy of the memorandum as altered, shall, within three months from the date, of the order, be filed by the company with the Registrar, and he shall register the same, and shall certify the registration under his hand, and the certificate shall be conclusive evidence that all the requirements of this Act with respect to the alteration and the confirmation thereof have been complied with, and thenceforth the memorandum so altered shall be the memorandum of the company.

(2) * * * *

(3) )TheCourtmaybyorderatanytimeextendthetimeforthefilingofdocumentswiththeRegistrarunder rthissectionforsuchperiodastheCourtthinksproper. .

16. No such alteration shall have any operation until registration thereof has been duly effected in accordance with the provisions of section 15, and if such registration is not effected within three months next after the date of the order of the Court confirming the alteration, or within such further time as may be allowed by the Court in accordance with the provisions of section 15, such alteration and order and all proceeding connected therewith shall, at the expiration of such period of three months or such further time, as the case may be, become absolutely null and void;

Provided that the Court may, on sufficient cause shown, revive the order on application made within a further period of one month.

Articles of Association.

 

17. (1) There may, in the case of a company limited by shares, and there shall, in the case of a company limited by guarantee or unlimited, be registered with the memorandum articles of association signed bythe subscribers to the memorandum and prescribing regulations for the company.

(2) Articles of association may adopt all or any of the regulations contained in Table A in the First Schedule, and shall in any event be deemed to contain regulations identical with or to the same effect as regulation 56, regulation 66, regulation 71, regulation 78, 79, 80, 81 and 82, regulation 95, regulation 97, regulation 105, regulation 107 and regulation 112, 113, 114, 115 and 116 contained in that Table:

Provided that regulation 78 shall not be deemed to be included in the articles of any private company except a private company which is the subsidiary company of a public company:

Provided further that regulation 107 shall be deemed to require that a statement of the reasons why, of the whole amount of any item of expenditure which may in fairness be distributed over several years, only a portion thereof is charged against the income of the year shall be shown in the profit and loss account, unless the company in general meeting shall determine otherwise.

(3) In the case of and unlimited company or a company limited by guarantee, the articles, if the company has a share capital, shall state the amount of share capital with which the company proposes ot be registered.

(4) In the case of an unlimited company or a company limited by guarantee, if the company has not a share capital, the articles shall state the number of members with which the company proposes to be registered, for the purpose of enabling the Registrar to determine the fees payable on registration.

18. In the case of a company limited by shares and registered after the commencement of this Act, if articles are not registered, or, if articles are registered, in so far as the articles do not exclude or modify the regulations in Table A in the First Schedule, those regulations shall so far as applicable be the regulations of the company in the same manner and to the same extent as if they were contained in duly registered articles.

19. Articles shall –

(a) be printed both in Burmese and English;

(b) be divided into paragraphs numbered consecutively ; and

(c) be signed by each subscriber of the memorandum of association (who shall add his address, nationality and description) in the presence of at least one witness who shall attest the signature.

20. (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act and to the conditions contained in its memorandum, a company may by special resolution alter or add to its articles; and any alteration or addition so made shall be as valid as if originally contained in the articles, and be subject in like manner to alteration by special resolution.

(2) The power of altering articles under his section shall, in the case of any company formed and registered under Act No. XIX of 1857+ and Act No. VII of 1860+ or either of them, extend to altering any provisions in Table B annexed to Act XIX of 1857+, and shall also, in the case of an unlimited company formed and registered under the said Acts or either of them, extend to altering any regulations relating to the amount of capital or its distribution into shares, notwithstanding that those regulations are contained in the memorandum.

20A. Notwithstanding anything in the memorandum or articles of a company, no member of the company shall be bound by an alteration made in the memorandum or articles after the date on which he became a member if and so far as the alteration requires him to take or subscribe for more shares than the number held by him at the date on which the alteration is made, or in any way increases his liability as at the date to contribute to the share capital of, or otherwise to pay money to, the company:

Provided that this section shall not apply in any case where the member agrees in writing either before or after the alteration is made to be bound thereby.

General Provisions

21. (1) The memorandum and articles shall, when registered, bind the company and the members thereof to the same extent as if they respectively had been signed by each member and contained a covenant on the part of each member, his heirs, and legal representatives, to observe all the provisions of the memorandum and of the articles, subject to the provisions of this Act.

(2) All money payable by any member to the company under the memorandum or articles shall be a debt due from him to the company.


*Substituted Act XXIII, 1955/

+ India Acts XIX of 1857 and VII of 1860 were repealed by India Act X of 1866.


22. The memorandum and the articles (if any) shall be filed with the Registrar and he shall retain and register them.

23. (1) On the registration of the memorandum of a company, the Registrar shall certify under his hand that the company is incorporated, and in the case of a limited company that the company is limited.

(2) From the date of incorporation mentioned in the certificate of incorporation, the subscribers of the memorandum, together with such other persons as may from time to time become members of the company, shall be a body corporate by the name contained in the memorandum, capable forthwith of exercising all the functions of an incorporated company, and having perpetual succession and a common seal, but with such liability on the part of the members to contribute to the assets of the company in the event of its being wound up as is mentioned in this Act.

24. (1) A certificate of incorporation given by the Registrar in respect of any association shall be conclusive evidence that all the requirements of this Act in respect of registration and of matters precedent and incidental thereto have been complied with, and that the association is a company authorized to be registered and duly registered under this Act.

(2) A declaration by an advocate entitled to appear before the High Court who is engaged in the formation of a company, or by a person named in the articles as a director, manager or secretary of the company, of compliance with all or any of the said requirements shall be filed with the Registrar, and

the Registrar may accept such a declaration as sufficient evidence of compliance.

25. (1) Every company shall send to every member, at his request and within fourteen days thereof, on payment of one rupee or such less sum as the company may prescribe, a copy of the memorandum and of the articles (if any).

(2) If a company makes default in complying with the requirements of this section, it shall be liable for each offence to a fine not exceeding ten rupees.

25A. (1) Where and alteration is made in the memorandum or articles of a company, every copy of the memorandum or articles issued the date of the alteration shall be in accordance with the alteration.

(2) If, where any such alteration has been made, the company at any time after the date of the alteration issues any copies of the memorandum or articles which are not in accordance with the alteration, it shall be liable to a fine not exceeding ten rupees for each copy so issued, and every officer of the company who is knowingly and willfully in default shall be liable to the like penalty.

Associations not for profit.

26. (1) Where it is proved to the satisfaction of the President of the Union that an association capable of being formed as a limited company has been or is about to be formed for promoting commerce, art, science, religion, charity, or any other useful object, and applies or intends to apply its profits (if any) or other income in promoting its objects, and to prohibit the payment of any dividend to its members, the President of the Union may, by licence, direct that the association be registered as a company with limited liability, without the addition of the word “ Limited” to its name, and the association may be registered accordingly.

(2) A licence by the President of the Union under this section may be granted on such conditions and subject to such regulations as the President of the Union thinks fit, and those conditions and regulations shall be binding on the association, and shall, if the President of the Union so directs, be inserted in the memorandum and articles, or in one of those documents.

(3) The association shall on registration enjoy all the privileges of limited companies, and be subject to all their obligations, except those of using the word “ Limited” as any part of its name, and of publishing its name, and of sending lists of members to the Registrar.

(4) A licence under this section may at any time be revoked by the President of the Union, and upon Revocation the Registrar shall enter the word “Limited” at the end of the name of the association upon the register, and the association shall cease to enjoy the exemptions and privileges granted by this section:

Provided that, before a licence is so revoked, the President of the Union shall give to the association notice in writing of his intention, and shall afford the association an opportunity of submitting a representation in opposition to the revocation.

Companies limited by Guarantee.

27. (1) In the case of a company limited by guarantee and not having a share capital, and registered after the commencement of this Act, every provision in the memorandum or articles or in any resolution of the company purporting to give any person a right to participate in the divisible profits of the company otherwise than as a member shall be void.

(2) For the purpose of the provision of this Act relating to the memorandum of a company limited by guarantee and of this section, every provision in the memorandum or articles, or in any resolution, of any company limited by guarantee and registered after the commencement of this Act, purporting to divide the undertaking of the company into shares or interests, shall be treated as a provision for a share capital, notwithstanding that the nominal amount or number of the shares or interests is not specified thereby.

Foreign Companies and Companies Carrying on International Trade*

*27A. (1) Every foreign company or company carrying on international trade shall, before its memorandum and articles, if any, are filed with the Registrar, obtain a permit from the President of the Union.

(2) An application for issue of a permit shall be in the form prescribed, and the President of the Union may grant the permit on such conditions and subject to such regulations, if any, as may be prescribed; and the permit shall be in Form I in the Third Schedule containing the particulars set out therein.

(3) No foreign company shall carry on or continue to carry on its business in the Union of Burma unless it has obtained a permit under sub-section (1) within such time as may be prescribed.

(4) (i) No company carrying on international trade shall establish a subsidiary company or branch in a foreign country unless it has obtained a permit under sub-section (1).

(ii) A company carrying on international trade having a subsidiary company or a branch in a foreign country at the date of commencement of the Burma Companies (Amendment) Act, 1955, shall obtain a permit from the President of the Union within such time as may be prescribed.

(5) If a foreign company or company carrying on international trade makes default in complying with the requirements of this section, the company, and every officer or agent of the company shall, on conviction, be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred kyats or, in the case of a continuing offence, fifty kyats for every day during which the default continues.


*Inserted by Act XXIII, 1955.


PART III.

SHARE CAPITAL, REGISTRATION OF UNLIMITED COMPANY AS

LIMITED, AND UNLIMITED LIABILITY OF DIRECTORS.

Distribution of Share Capital

 

28. (1) The shares or other interest of any member in a company shall be moveable property, transferable in manner provided by the articles of the company.

(2) Each share in a company having a share capital shall be distinguished by its appropriate number.

29. A certificate under the common seal of the company, specifying any shares or stock held by any member, shall be prima facie evidence of the title of the member to the shares or stock therein specified.

30. (1) The subscribers of the memorandum of a company shall be deemed to have agreed to become members of the company, and on its registration shall be entered as members in its register of members.

(2) Every other person who agrees to become a member of a company and whose name is entered in its register of members, shall be a member of the company.

31. (1) Every company shall keep in one or more books a register of its members, and enter therein the following particulars: -

(i) [the names, addresses and nationality]* and the occupations, if any, of the members and, in the case of a company having a share capital, a statement of the shares held by each member, distinguishing each share by its number, and of the amount paid or agreed to be considered as paid on the shares of each member;

(ii) the date at which each person was entered in the register as a member;

(iii)the date at which any person ceased to be a member.

(2) If a company makes default in complying with the requirements of this section, it shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day during which the default continues, and every officer of the company who knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits the default shall be liable to the like penalty.


*Substituted by Act XXIII, 1955.


31A. (1) Every company having more than fifty members shall, unless the register of members is in such a form as to constitute in itself an index, keep an index of the names of the members of the company, and shall within fourteen days after the date on which any alteration is made in the register of members make any necessary alteration in the index.

(2) The index, which may be in the form of a card index, shall in respect of each member contain a sufficient indication to enable the account of that member in the register to be readily found.

(3) If default is made in complying with this section, the company and every officer of the company who is knowingly and willfully in default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees.

32. (1) Every company having a share capital shall within eighteen months from its incorporation and thereafter once at least in every year make a list of all persons who, on the day of the first or only ordinary general meeting in the year, are members of the company, and of all persons who have ceased to be members since the date of the last return or (in the case of the first return) of the incorporation of the company.

(2) The list shall state [the names, addresses, nationality]* and occupations of all the past and present members therein mentioned, and the number of shares held by each of the existing members at the date of the return, specifying shares transferred since the date of the last return or (in the case of the first return) of the incorporation of the company by persons who are still members and persons who have ceased to be members, respectively, and the dates of registration of the transfers, and shall contain a summary distinguishing between shares issued for cash and shares issued as fully or partly paid up otherwise than in cash, and specifying the following particulars; -

(a) the amount of the share capital of the company, and the number of the shares into which it is divided;

(b) the number of shares taken from the commencement of the company up to the date of the return;

(c) the amount called up on each share;

(d) the total amount of calls received;

(e) the total amount of calls unpaid;

(f) the total amount of the sums (if any) paid by way of commission in respect of any shares or debentures, or allowed by way of discount in respect of any shares or debentures, since the date of the last return, or so much thereof as has not been written off at date of the return;

(g) the total number of shares forfeited;

(h) the total amount of shares or stock for which share-warrants are outstanding at the dated of the return;

(i) the total amount of share-warrants issued and surrendered respectively since the date of the last return;

(k) the number of shares or amount of stock comprised in each share-warrant;

(l) [the names, addresses and nationality]* of the person who at the date of the return are the direction of the company and of the persons (if any) who at the said date, are the managers or managing agents of the company, and the changes in the personnel of the directors,

managers and managing agents since the last return together with the dates on which they took place; and

(m) the total amount of debts due from the company in respect of all mortgages and charges which are required to be registered with the Registrar under this Act.

(3) The above list and summary shall be contained in a separate part of the register of members, and shall be completed within twenty-one days after the day of the first or only ordinary general meeting in the year and the company shall forthwith file with the Registrar a copy signed by a director or by the manager or the secretary of the company, together with a certificate from such director, manager or secretary that the list and summary state the facts as they stood on the day aforesaid.

(4) A private company shall send with the annual return required by sub-section (1) a certificate signed by a director or other officer of the company that the company has not, since the date of the last return or, in the case of a first return, since that date of the incorporation of the company, issued any invitation to the public to subscribe for any shares or debentures of the company, and where the annual return discloses the fact that the number of members of the company exceeds fifty, also a certificate so signed that the excess consists wholly of persons who under sub-clause (b) of clause (13) of sub-section

(1) of section 2 are not to be included in reckoning the number of fifty.

(5) If a company makes default in complying with the requirements of this section, it shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day during which the default continues, and every officer of the company who knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits the default shall be liable to the like penalty.

33. No notice of any trust, expressed, implied or constructive, shall be entered on the register, or be receivable by the Registrar.


*Substituted by Act XXIII, 1955.


34. (1) An application for the registration of the transfer of shares in a company may be made either by the transferor or the transferee, provided that where such application is made by the transferor no registration shall in the case of partly paid shares be effected unless the company gives notice of the application to the transferee, and subject to the provisions of sub-section (4), the company shall, unless objection is made by the transferee within two weeks from the date of receipt of the notice, enter in its register of members the name of the transferee in the same manner and subject to the same conditions as if the application for registration was made by the transferee.

(2) For the purposes of sub-section (1) notice to the transferee shall be deemed to have been duly given if dispatched by prepaid post to the transferee at the address given in the instrument of transfer and shall be deemed to have been delivered in the ordinary course of post.

(3) It shall not be lawful for the company to register a transfer of shares in or debentures of the company unless the proper instrument of transfer duly stamped and executed by the transferor and the transferee has been delivered to the company along with the scrip;

Provided that, where it is proved to the satisfaction of the directors of the company that an instrument of transfer signed by the transferor and transferee has been lost, the company may, if the directors think fit, on an application in writing made by the transferee and bearing the stamp required by an instrument of transfer, register the transfer on such terms as to indemnity as the directors may think fit.

(4) If a company refuses to register the transfer of any shares or debentures, the company shall, within two months from the date on which the instrument of transfer was lodged with the company, send to the transferee and the transferor notice of the refusal.

(5) If default is made in complying with sub-section (4) of this section, the company and every director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company who is knowingly a party to the default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day during which the default continues.

(6) Nothing in sub-section (3) shall prejudice any power of the company to register as shareholder or debenture-holder any person to whom the right to any shares in or debentures of the company has been transmitted by operation of law.

(7) Nothing in this section shall prejudice any power of the company under its articles to refuse to register the transfer of any shares.

34A. (1) It shall be the duty of every Burmese company to give intimation to the Registrar of the transfer of its shares, within 21 days of such transfer, to any foreigner, stating the nationality of the transferee.

(2) It shall be the duty of every foreign company to give intimation to the Registrar of the transfer of its shares, within 21 days of such transfer when as a consequence of such transfer, the entire share capital of the said company is owned and controlled by citizens of the Union of Burma.

(3) If any company makes default in complying with the requirements of this section, the company, and every officer or agent of the company who is knowingly a party to the default shall, on conviction, be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty kyats for every day during which the default continues.

35. A transfer of the share or other interest of a deceased member of a company made by his legal representative shall, although the legal representative is not himself a member, be as valid as if he had been a member at the time of the execution of the instrument of transfer.

36. (1) The register of members, commencing from the date of the registration of the company, and the index of members shall be kept at the registered office of the company, and, except when closed under the provisions of this Act, shall during business hours (subject to such reasonable restrictions, as the company in general meeting may impose, so that not less than two hours in each day be allowed for inspection) be open to the inspection of any member gratis, and to the inspection of any other person on payment of one rupee, or such less sum as the company may prescribe, for each inspection. Any such member or other person may make extracts there from.

(2) Any member or other person may require a copy of the register or of any part thereof, or of the list and summary required by this Act or any part thereof, on payment of six annas for every hundred words or fractional part thereof required to be copied, and the company shall cause any copy so required by any person to be sent to that person within a period of ten days, exclusive of non-working days and days on which the transfer books of the company are closed, commencing on the day next after the day on which the requirement is received by the company.

(3) If any inspection required under this section is refused, or if any copy required under this section is not sent within the proper period, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable in respect of each offence to a fine not exceeding twenty rupees, and to a further fine not exceeding twenty rupees for every day during which the refusal or default continues, and the Court may by an order compel an immediate inspection of the register and index or direct that copies required shall be sent to the persons requiring them.

37. A company may, on giving seven day’s previous notice by advertisement in some newspaper circulating in the district in which the registered office of the company is situate, close the register of members for any time or times not exceeding in the whole forty-five days in each year but not exceeding thirty days at a time.

38. (1) If –

(a) the name of any person is fraudulently or without sufficient cause entered in or omitted from the register of members of a company, or

(b) default is made or unnecessary delay takes place in entering on the register the fact of any person having ceased to be a member, the person aggrieved, or any member of the company, or the company, may apply to the Court for rectification of the register.

(2) The Court may either refuse the application, or may order rectification of the register and payment by the company of any damages sustained by any party aggrieved, and may make such order as to costs as it in its discretion thinks fit.

(3) On any application under this section the Court may decide any question relating to the title of any person who is a party to the application to have his name entered in or omitted from the register, whether the question arises between members or alleged members, or between members or alleged members on the one hand and the company on the other hand; and generally may decide any question necessary or expedient to be decided for rectification of the register;

Provided that the Court may direct an issue to be tried in which any question of law may be raised; and an appeal from the decision on such an issue shall in the manner directed by the Code of Civil Procedure on the grounds mentioned in section 100 of that Code.

39. In the case of a company required by this Act to file a list of its members with the Registrar, the Court, when making an order for rectification of the register, shall, by its order, direct notice of the rectification to be filed with the Registrar within a fortnight from the date of the completion the order.

40. The register of members shall be prima facie evidence of any matters by this Act directed or authorized to be inserted therein.

41. (1) A company having a share capital may, if so authorized by its articles, cause to be kept in the United Kingdom a branch register of members (in this Act called a British register).

(2) The company shall, within one month from the date of the opening of any British register, file with the Registrar notice of the situation of the office where such register is kept and, in the event of any change in the situation of such office or of its discontinuance, shall, within one month from the date of such change or discontinuance as the case may be, file notice of such change or discontinuance.

(3) If a company makes default in complying with the requirements of this section, it shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day during which the default continues.

42. (1) A British register shall be deemed to be part of the company’s register of members (in this section called the principal register).

(2) It shall be kept in the same manner in which the principal register is by this Act required to be kept, except that the advertisement before closing the register shall be inserted in some newspaper circulating in the locality wherein the British register is kept.

(3) The company shall transmit to its registered office in the Union of Burma a copy of every entry in its British register as soon as may be after the entry is made; and shall cause to be kept at such office, duly entered up from time to time, a duplicate of its British register, and the duplicate shall, for all the purposes of this Act, be deemed to be part of the principal register.

(4) Subject to the provisions of this section with respect to the duplicate register, the shares registered in a British register shall be distinguished from the shares registered in the principal register, and no transaction with respect to any shares registered in a British register shall, during the continuance of that registration, be registered in any other register.

(5) The company may discontinue to keep any British register, and thereupon all entries in that register shall be transferred to the principal register.

(6) Subject to the provisions of this Act, any company may, by its articles, make such regulations as it may think fit respecting the keeping of a British register.

43. (1) A company limited by shares, if so authorized by its articles, may, with respect to any fully paid-up shares, or to stock, issue its common seal a warrant stating that the bearer of the warrant is entitled to the shares or stock therein specified, and may provide, by coupons or otherwise, for the payment of the future dividends on the shares or stock included in the warrant, in this act termed a share-warrant.

(2) Nothing in the section shall apply to a private company.

44. A share-warrant shall entitle the bearer thereof to the shares or stock may be transferred by delivery of the warrant.

45. The bearer of a share- warrant shall, subject to the articles of the company, be entitled, on surrendering it for cancellation, to have his name entered as a member in the register of members; and the company shall be responsible for any loss incurred by any person by reason of the company entering in its register the name of a bearer of a share-warrant in respect of the shares or stock therein specified without the warrant being surrendered and cancelled.

46. The bearer of a share-warrant may, if the articles of the company so provide, be deemed to be a member of the company within the meaning of this Act, either to the full extent or for any purposes defined in the articles, except that he shall not be qualified in respect of the shares or stock specified in the warrant for being a director or manager of the company, in cases where such a qualification is required by the articles.

47. (1) On the issue of a share-warrant, the company shall strike out of its register of members the name of the member then entered therein as holding the shares or stock specified in the warrant as if he had ceased to be a member, and shall enter in the register the following particulars, namely; -

(i) the fact of the issue of the warrant;

(ii) a statement of the shares or stock included in the warrant, distinguishing each share by its number; and

(iii)the date of the issue of the warrant.

(2) If a company makes default in complying with the requirements of this section it shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day during which the default continues, and every officer of the company who knowingly and willfully continues or permits the default shall be liable to the like penalty.

48. Until the warrant is surrendered, the above particulars shall be deemed to be the particulars required by this Act to be entered in the register of members; and, on the surrender, the date of the surrender shall be entered as if it were the date at which a person ceased to be a member.

49. A company, if so authorized by its articles, may do any one or more of the following things, namely;-

(1) make arrangements on the issue of shares for a difference between the shareholders in the amounts and times of payment of calls on their shares;

(2) accept from any member who assents thereto the whole or a part of the amount remaining unpaid on any shares held by him although no part of that amount has been called up;

(3) pay dividend in proportion to the amount paid up on each share where a larger amount is paid up on some shares than on others.

50. (1) A company limited by shares, if so authorized by its articles, may alter the conditions of its memorandum as follows (that is to say), it may –

(a) increase its capital by the issue of new shares of such amount as it thinks expedient;

(b) consolidate and divide all or any of its share capital into shares of larger amount than its existing shares;

(c) convert all or any of its paid-up shares into stock and reconvert that stock into paid-up shares of any denomination;

(d) sub-divide its shares, or any of them, into shares of smaller amount than is fixed by the memorandum, so, however, that in the sub-division the proportion between the amount paid and the amount, if any, unpaid on each reduced share shall be the same as it was in the case of the share from which the reduced share is derived.

(e) cancel shares which, at the date of the passing of the resolution in that behalf, have not been taken or agreed to be taken by any person, and diminish the amount of its share capital by the amount of the shares so cancelled.

(2) The powers conferred by this section must be exercised by the company in general meeting.

(3) A cancellation of shares in pursuance of this section shall not be deemed to be a reduction of share capital within the meaning of this Act.

(4) The company shall file with the Registrar notice of the exercise of any power referred to in clause (d) or clause (e) of sub-section (1) within fifteen days from the exercise thereof.

51. (1) Where a company having a share capital has consolidated and divided its share capital into shares of larger amount than its existing shares, or converted any of its shares into stock, or re-converted stock into shares, it shall within fifteen days of the consolidation and division, conversion or reconversion, file notice with the Registrar of the same, specifying the shares consolidated and divided, or converted, or the stock re-converted.

(2) If a company makes default in complying with the requirements of this section, it shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day during which the default continues, and every officer of the company who knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits the default shall be liable to the like penalty.

52. Where a company having a share capital has converted any of its shares into stock, and filed notice of the conversion with the Registrar, all the provisions of this Act which are applicable to shares only shall cease as to so much of the share capital as is converted into stock; and the register of members of the company, and the list of members to be filed with the Registrar, shall show the amount of stock held by each member instead of the amount of shares and the particulars relating to shares hereinbefore required by this Act.

 

53. (1) Where a company having a share capital, whether its shares have or have not been converted into stock, has increased its share capital beyond the registered capital, and where a company not having a share capital has increased the number of its members beyond the registered number, it shall file with the Registrar, in the case of an increase of share capital, within fifteen days after the passing of the resolution authorizing the increase, and, in the case of an increase of members, within fifteen days after the increase was resolved on or took place, notice of the increase of capital or members, and the Registrar shall record the increase.

(2) The notice to be given as aforesaid shall include particulars of the classes of shares affected and the conditions (if any) subject to which the new shares are to be issued.

(3) If a company makes a default in complying with the requirements of this section, it shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day during which the default continues, and every officer of the company who knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits the default shall be liable to the like penalty.

54. (1) A company limited by shares may, be special resolution confirmed by an order of the Court, modify the conditions contained in its memorandum so as to reorganize is share capital, whether by the consolidation of shares of different classes or by the division of its shares into shares of different classes;

Provided that no preference or special privilege attached to or belonging to any class of shares shall be interfered with except by resolution passed by a majority in number of shareholders of that class holding three-fourths of the share capital of that class and every resolution so passed shall bind all shareholders of the class.

(2) Where an order is made under this section, a certified copy thereof shall be filed with the Registrar within twenty-one days after the making of the order, or within such further time as the Court may allow, and the resolution shall not take effect until such a copy has been so filed.

Reduction of Share Capital.

54A. (1) No company limited by shares shall have power to buy its own shares or the shares of a public company of which it is a subsidiary company unless the consequent reduction of capital is effected and sanctioned in the manner provided by sections 55 to 66.

(2) No company limited by shares, other than a private company not being a subsidiary company of a public company, shall give, whether directly or indirectly, and whether by means of a loan, guarantee, the provision of security or otherwise, any financial assistance for the purpose of or in connection with a purchase made or to be made by any person of any shares in the company;

Provided that nothing in this section shall be taken to prohibit, where the lending of money is part of the ordinary business of a company, the lending of money by the company in the ordinary course of its business.

(3) If a company acts in contravention of this section, the company and every officer of the company who is knowingly and willfully in default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one thousand rupees.

(4) Nothing in this section shall affect the right of a company to redeem any shares issued under section 105B.

55. (1) Subject to confirmation by the Court, a company limited by shares, if so authorized by its articles, may by special resolution reduce its share capital in any way, and in particular (without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power) may –

(a) extinguish or reduce the liability on any of its shares in respect of share capital not paid up; or

(b) either with or without extinguishing or reducing liability on any of its shares, cancel any paidup share capital which is lost or unrepresented by available assets; or

(c) either with or without extinguishing or reducing liability on any of its shares, pay off any paidup share capital which is in excess of the wants of the company. and may, if and so far as is necessary, alter its memorandum by reducing the amount of its share capital and of its shares accordingly.

(2) A special resolution under this section is in this Act called a resolution for reducing share capital.

56. Where a company has passed a resolution for reducing share capital, it may apply by petition to the Court for an order confirming the reduction.

57. On and from the passing by a company of a resolution for reducing share capital, or where the reduction does not involve either the diminution of any liability in respect of unpaid share capital or the payment to any shareholder of any paid-up share capital, then on and from the making of the order confirming the reduction, the company shall add to its name, until such date as the Court may fix, the words “and reduced” as the last words in its name, and those words shall, until that date, be deemed to be part of the name of the company;

Provided that, where the reduction does not involve either the diminution of any liability in respect of unpaid share capital or the payment to any shareholder of any paid-up share capital, the Court may, if it thinks expedient, dispense altogether with the addition of the words “and reduced”.

58. (1) Where the proposed reduction of share capital involves either diminution of liability in respect of unpaid share capital, or the payment to any shareholder of any paid-up share capital, and in any other case if the Court so directs, every creditor of the company who at the date fixed by the Court is entitled to any debt or claim which, if that date were the commencement of the winding up of the company, would be admissible in proof against the company, shall be entitled to object to the reduction.

(2) The Court shall settle a list of creditors so entitled to object, and for that purpose shall ascertain, as far as possible without requiring an application from any creditor, the name of those creditors and the nature and amount of their debts or claims, and may publish notices fixing a day or days within which creditors not entered on the list are to claim to be so entered or are to be excluded from the right of objecting to the reduction.

59. Where a creditor entered on the list of creditors whose debt or claim is not discharged or determined does not consent to the reduction, the Court may, if it thinks fit, dispense with the consent of that creditor, on the company securing payment of his debt or claim by appropriating, as the Court may direct, the following amount (that is to say), -

(i) if the company admits the full amount of his debt or claim, or though not admitting it, is willing to provide for it, then the full amount of the debt or claim;

(ii) if the company does not admit or is not willing to provide for the full amount of the debt or claim, or if the amount is contingent or not ascertained, then an amount fixed by the Court after the like inquiry and adjudication as if the company were being wound up by the Court.

60. The Court, if satisfied, with respect to every creditor of the company who under this Act is entitled to object to the reduction, that either his consent to the reduction has been obtained or his debt or claim has been discharged or has been determined or has been secured, may make an order confirming the reduction on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit.

61. (1) The Registrar, on production to him of an order of the Court confirming the reduction of the share capital of a company, and on the filing with him of a certified copy of the order and of a minute (approved by the Court) showing, with respect to the share capital of the company as altered by the order, the amount of the share capital, the number of shares into which it is to be divided and the amount of each share, and the amount (if any) at the date of the registration deemed to be paid up on each share, shall register the order and minute.

(2) On the registration, and not before, the resolution for reducing share capital as confirmed by the order so registered shall take effect.

(3) Notice of the registration shall be published in such manner as the Court may direct.

(4) The Registrar shall certify under his hand the registration of the order and minute, and his certificate shall be conclusive evidence that all the requirements of this Act with respect to reduction of share capital have been complied with, and that the share capital of the company is such as is stated in the minute.

62. (1) The minute when registered shall be deemed to be substituted for the corresponding part of the memorandum of the company, and shall be valid and alterable as if it had been originally contained therein, and shall be embodied in every copy of the memorandum issued after its registration.

(2) If a company makes default in complying with the requirements of this section, it shall be liable to a fine not exceeding ten rupees for each copy in respect of which default is made, and every officer of the company who knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits the default shall be liable to the like penalty.

63. (1) A member of the company, past or present, shall not be liable in respect of any share to any call or contribution exceeding in amount the difference (if any) between the amount paid, or (as the case may be) between the amount, if any, which is to be deemed to have been paid, on the share and the amount of the share as fixed by the minute;

Provided that, if any creditor, entitled in respect of any debt or claim to object to the reduction of share capital, is, by reason of his ignorance of the proceedings for reduction, or of their nature and effect with respect to his claim, not entered on the list of creditors, and, after the reduction the company is unable, within the meaning of the provisions of this Act with respect to winding up by the Court, to pay the amount of his debt or claim, then –

(i) every person who was a member of the company at the date of the registration of the order for reduction and minute shall be liable to contribute for the payment of that debt or claim and amount not exceeding the amount which he would have been liable to contribute if the company had commenced to be wound up on the day before that registration; and

(ii) if the company is wound up, the Court, on the application of any such creditor and proof of his ignorance as aforesaid, may, if it thinks fit, settle accordingly a list of persons so liable to contribute, and make and enforce calls and orders on the contributories settled on the list as if they were ordinary contributories in a winding up.

(2) Nothing in this section shall affect the rights of the contributories among themselves.

64. If any officer of the company willfully conceals the name of any creditor entitled to object to the reduction, or willfully misrepresents the nature or amount of the debt or claim of any creditor, or if any officer of the company abets any such concealment or misrepresentation as aforesaid, every such officershall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

65. In any case of reduction of share capital, the Court may require the company to publish as the Court directs the reasons for reduction, or such other information in regard thereto as the Court may think expedient, with a view to give proper information to the public, and, if the Court thinks fit, the causes which led to the reduction.

66. A company limited by guarantee and registered after the commencement of this Act may, if it has a share capital and is so authorized by its articles, increase or reduce its share capital in the same manner and subject to the same conditions in and subject to which a company limited by shares may increase or reduce its share capital under the provisions of this Act.

Variation of shareholder’s Rights.

66A. (1) If in the case of a company, the share capital of which is divided into different classes of shares, provision is made by the memorandum or articles for authorizing the variation of the rights attached to any class of shares in the company, subject to the consent of any specified proportion of the holders of the issued shares of that class or the sanction of a resolution passed at a separate meeting of the holders of those shares, and in pursuance of the said provision the rights attached to any such class of shares are at any time varied, the holders of not less in the aggregate than ten per cent of the issued shares of that class, being persons who did not consent to or vote in favour of the resolution for the variation, may apply to the Court to have the variation cancelled, and where any such application is made the variation shall not have effect unless and until it is confirmed by the Court.

(2) An application under this section must be made within fourteen days after the date on which the consent was given or the resolution was passed, as the case may be, and may be made on behalf of the shareholders entitled to make the application by such one or more of their number as they may appoint in writing for the purpose.

(3) On any such application the Court, after hearing the applicant and any other persons who apply to the Court to be heard and appear to the Court to be interested in the application, may, if it is satisfied having regard to all the circumstances of the case that the variation would unfairly prejudice the shareholders of the class represented by the applicant, disallow the variation and shall, if not so satisfied, confirm the variation.

(4) The decision of the Court on any such application shall be final.

(5) The company shall within fifteen days after the service on the company of any order made on any such application forward a copy of the order to the Registrar, and, if default is made in complying with this provision, the company and every officer of the company who is knowingly and willfully in default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees.

(6) The expression “variation” in this section includes “abrogation” and the expression “varied” shall be construed accordingly.

Registration of Unlimited Company as Limited.

67. (1) Subject to the provisions of this section, any company registered as unlimited may register under this Act as limited, or any company already registered as a limited company may re-register under this Act, but the registration of an unlimited company as a limited company shall not affect any debts, liabilities, obligations or contracts incurred or entered into by, to, with or on behalf of, the company before the registration, and those debts, liabilities, obligations and contracts may be enforced in manner provided by Part VIII of this Act in the case of a company registered in pursuance of that Part.

(2) On registration in pursuance of this section, the Registrar shall close the former registration of the company, and may dispense with the delivery to him of copies of any documents with copies of which he was furnished on the occasion of the original registration of the company; but, save as aforesaid, the registration shall take place in the same manner and shall have effect as if it were the first registration of the company under this Act.

68. An unlimited company having a share capital may, by its resolution for registration as a limited company in pursuance of this Act, do either or both of the following things, namely; -

(a) increase the nominal amount of its share capital by increasing the nominal amount of each of its shares, but subject to the condition that no part of the amount by which its capital is so increased shall be capable of being called up except in the event and for the purposes of the company being wound up;

(b) Provide that a specified portion of its uncalled share capital shall not be capable of being called up except in the event and for the purposes of the company being wound up.

Reserve Liability of limited Company.

69. A limited company may by special resolution determine that any portion of its share capital which has not been already called up shall not be capable of being called up, except in the event and for the purposes of the company being wound up, and thereupon that portion of its share capital shall not be capable of being called up except in the event and for the purposes aforesaid.

Unlimited Liability of Directors.

70. (1) In a limited company the liability of the directors or of any director may, if so provided by the memorandum, be unlimited.

(2) In a limited company in which the liability of any director is unlimited, the directors of the company (if any) and the member who propose a person for election or appointment to the office of director shall add to that proposal a statement that the liability of the person holding that office will be unlimited, and the promoters and officers of the company, or one of them, shall, before the person accepts the office or acts therein, give him notice in writing that his liability will be unlimited.

(3) If any director or proposer makes default in adding such a statement, or if any promoter or officer of the company makes default in giving such a notice, he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one thousand rupees and shall also be liable for any damage which the person so elected or appointed may sustain from the default, but the liability of the person elected or appointed shall not be affected by the default.

71. (1) A limited company, if so authorized by its articles, may by special resolution alter its memorandum so as to render unlimited the liability of its directors or of any director.

(2) Upon the passing of any such special resolution, the provisions thereof shall be as valid as if they had been originally contained in the memorandum.

PART IV.

MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION.

Office and Name.

 

72. (1) A company shall as from the day on which it begins to carry on business, or as from the twenty-eighth day after the date of its incorporation, whichever is the earlier, have a registered office to which all communications and notices may be addressed.

(2) Notice of the situation of the registered office and of any change therein shall be given within twenty-eight days after the date of the incorporation of the company or of the change, as the case may be, to the Registrar who shall record the same.

(3) The inclusion in the annual return of a company of the statement as to the address of its registered office shall not be taken to satisfy the obligation imposed by this section.

(4) If a company carries on business without complying with the requirements of this section, it shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day during which it so carries business.

73. Every limited company –

(a) shall paint or affix, and keep painted or affixed, its name on the outside of every office or place in which its business is carried on, in a conspicuous position, in letters easily legible and in English characters, and also, if the registered office be situate in a place beyond the local limits of the ordinary original civil jurisdiction of the High Court, in the characters of one of the vernacular languages used in that place;

(b) shall have its name engraven in legible characters on its seal;

(c) shall have its name mentioned in legible Burmese* characters in all bill-heads and letter paper and in all notices, advertisements and other official publications of the company, and in all bills of exchange, hundis, promissory notes, endorsements, cheques and order for money or

goods purporting to be signed by or on behalf of the company, and in all bills of parcels, invoices, receipts and letters of credit of the company.

74. (1) If a limited company does not paint or affix, and keep painted or affixed, its name, in manner directed by this Act, it shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for not so painting or affixing its name, and for every day during which its name is not so kept painted or affixed, and every officer of the company, who knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits the default, shall be liable to the like penalty.

(2) If any officer of a limited company, or any person on its behalf, uses or authorizes the use of any seal purporting to be a seal of the company whereon its name is not so engraven as aforesaid, or issues or authorizes the issue of any bill-head, letter paper, notice, advertisement or other official publication of the company, or signs or authorizes to be signed on behalf of the company any bill of exchange, hundi, promissory note, endorsement, cheque or order for money or goods, or issues or authorizes to be issued any bill of parcels, invoice, receipt or letter of credit of the company, wherein its name is not mentioned in manner aforesaid, he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred rupees, and shall further be personally liable to the holder of any such bill of exchange, hundi, promissory note, cheque or order for money or goods, for the amount thereof, unless the same is duly paid by the company.


*Substituted for the word “English” by the Union of Burma (Adaptation of Laws) Order, 1948.


75. (1) Where any notice, advertisement or other official publication of a company contains a statement of the amount of the authorized capital of the company such notice, advertisement or other official publication shall also contain a statement in an equally prominent position and in equally conspicuous characters of the amount of the capital which has been subscribed and the amount paid up.

(2) Any company which makes default in complying with the requirements of this section and every officer of the company who is knowingly a party to the default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one thousand rupees.

 

Meetings and Proceedings.

76. (1) A general meeting of every company shall be held within eighteen months from the date of its incorporation and thereafter once at least in every calendar year and not more than fifteen months after the holding of the last preceding general meeting.

(2) If default is made in holding a meeting in accordance with the provisions of this section, the company and every director or manager of the company who is knowingly and willfully a party to the default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred rupees.

(3) If default is made as aforesaid, the Court may, on the application of any member of the company, call or direct the calling of a general meeting of the company.

77. (1) Every company limited by shares and every company limited by guarantee and having a share capital shall, within a period of not less than one month nor more than six months from the date at which the company is entitled to commence business, hold a general meeting of the members of the company, which shall be called the statutory meeting.

(2) The directors shall, at least twenty-one days before the day on which the meeting is held, forward a report (in this Act referred to as the statutory report) certified as required by this section to every member of the company.

(3) The statutory report shall be certified by not less than two directors of the company, or by the chairman of the directors if authorized in this behalf by the directors, and shall state –

(a) the total number of shares allotted, distinguishing shares allotted as fully or partly paid up otherwise than in cash, and stating in the case of shares partly paid up the extent to which they are so paid up, and in either case the consideration for which they have been allotted;

(b) the total amount of cash received by the company in respect of all the shares allotted, distinguished as aforesaid;

(c) an abstract of the receipts of the company and of the payments made thereout up to a date within seven days of the date of the report, exhibiting under distinctive headings the receipts of the company from shares and debentures and other sources, the payments made thereout, and particulars concerning the balance remaining in hand, and an account or estimate of the preliminary expenses of the company showing separately any commission or discount paid on the issue or sale of shares;

(d) [the names, addresses, nationality]* and descriptions of the directors, auditors, managing agents and managers, if any, and secretary of the company and the changes, if any, which have occurred since the date of the incorporation;

(e) the particulars of any contract, the modification of which is to be submitted to the meeting for its approval, together with the particulars of the modification or proposed modification;

(f) the extent to which underwriting contracts, if any, have been carried out;

(g) the arrears, if any, due on calls from directors, managing agents and managers, and

(h) the particulars of any commission or brokerage paid or to be paid in connection with the issue or sale of shares to any director, managing agent or manager, or a partner of the managing agent if the managing agent is a firm, or if the managing agent is a private company a director thereof.

(4) The statutory report shall, so far as it relates to the shares allotted by the company, and to the cash received in respect of such shares and to the receipts and payments of the company, be certified as correct by the auditors of the company.


*Substituted by Act XXIII, 1955.


(6) If any inspection required under sub-section (4) of this section is refused, or if any copy required under sub-section (5) of this section is not furnished within the time specified in sub-section (5), the company and every officer of the company who is knowingly and willfully in default shall be liable in respect of each offence to a fine not exceeding twenty-five rupees, and to a further fine of twenty-five rupees for every day during which the default continues.

(7) In the case of any such refusal or default, the Court may by order compel an immediate inspection of the books in respect of all proceedings of general meetings or direct that the copies required shall be sent to the persons requiring them.

 

Directors.

83A. (1) Every company shall have at least three directors.

(2) This section shall not apply to a private company except a private company being a subsidiary company of a public company.

83B. (1) In default of and subject to any regulations in the articles of a company other than a private company –

(i) the subscribers of the memorandum shall be deemed to be the directors of the company until the first directors shall have been appointed;

 

(ii) the directors of the company shall be appointed by the members in general meeting; and

(iii) any casual vacancy occurring among the directors may be filled up by the directors, but the person so appointed shall be subject to retirement at the same time as if he had become a director on the day on which the director in whose place he is appointed was last appointed a director.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in the articles of a company other than a private company, not less than two-thirds of the whole number of directors shall be persons whose period of office is liable to determination at any time by retirement of directors in rotation;

Provided that nothing herein contained shall apply to a company incorporated before the 15th January, 1937,* where by virtue of the articles of the company the number of directors whose period of office is liable to determination at any time by retirement of directors in rotation falls below the twothirds proportion mentioned in this section.


*Date of commencement of the Indian Companies (Amendment) Act, 1936 (India Act XXII, 1936)


84. (1) A person shall not be capable of being appointed director of a company by the articles, and shall not be named as a director or proposed director of a company in any prospectus issued by or on behalf of the company or in relation to any intended company or in any statement in lieu of prospectus filed by or on behalf of a company, unless, before the registration of the articles or the publication of the prospectus, or the filing of the statement in lieu of prospectus, as the case may be, he has by himself or by his agent authorized in writing-

(i) signed and filed with the Registrar a consent in writing to act as such director, and

(ii) save in the case of companies not having a share capital, either signed the memorandum for a number of shares not less than his qualification (if any) or taken from the company and paid or agreed to pay for his qualification shares or signed and filed with the Registrar a contract in writing to take from the company and pay for his qualification shares (if any) or made and filed with the Registrar an affidavit to the effect that a number of shares, not less than his qualification (if any), are registered in his name.

(2) On the application for registration of the memorandum and articles, if any, of a company the applicant shall file with the Registrar a list of the persons who have consented to be directors of the company, and, if this list contains the name of any person who has not so consented, the applicant shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred rupees.

(3) This section shall not apply to a private company or a company which was a private company before becoming a public company nor to a prospectus issued by or on behalf of a company after the expiration of one year from the date at which the company is entitled to commence business.

85. (1) Without prejudice to the restrictions imposed by section 84, it shall be the duty of every director who is by the articles required to hold a specified share qualification, and who is not already qualified, to obtain his qualification within two months after his appointment, or such shorter time as may be fixed by the articles.

(2) If, after the expiration of the said period or shorter time, any unqualified person acts as a director of the company, he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day between the expiration of the said period or shorter time and the last day on which it is proved that he acted as a director.

86. The acts of a director shall be valid notwithstanding any defect that may afterwards be discovered in his appointment or qualification: Provided that nothing in this section shall be deemed to give validity to acts done by a director after the appointment of such director has been shown to be invalid.

86A. (1) If any person being an undischarged insolvent acts as director or managing agent or manager of any company, he shall be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years, or to a fine not exceeding one thousand rupees, or to both.

(2) In this section the expression “company” includes a company incorporated outside the Union of Burma which has an established place of business within the Union of Burma.

86B. If in the case of any company provision is made by the articles or by any agreement entered into between any person and the company for empowering a director or manager of the company to assign his office as such to another person, any assignment of office made in pursuance of the said provision shall, notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in the said provision, be of no effect unless

and until it is approved by a special resolution of the company:

Provided that the exercise by a director of a power to appoint an alternate or substitute director to act for him during an absence of not less than three months from the district in which meetings of the directors are ordinarily held, if done with the approval of the board of directors, shall not be deemed to be an assignment of office within the meaning of this section:

Provided always that any such alternate or substitute director shall ipso facto vacate office if and when the appointor returns to the district in which meetings of the directors are ordinarily held.

86C. Save as provided in this section, any provision, whether contained in the articles of a company or in any contract with a company or otherwise, for exempting any director, manager or officer of the company, or any person (whether an officer of the company or not) employed by the company as auditor, from or indemnifying him against any liability which by virtue of any rule of law would otherwise attach to him in respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust of which he may be guilty in relation to the company shall be void:

Provided that –

(a) In relation to any such provision which is in force on the 15th January, 1937,* this section shall have effect only on the expiration of a period of six months from that date, and

(b) nothing in this section shall operate to deprive any person of any exemption or right to be indemnified in respect of anything done or omitted to be done by him while any such provision was in force, and

(c) notwithstanding anything in this section, a company may, in pursuance of any such provision as aforesaid, indemnify any such director, manager, officer or auditor against any liability incurred by him in defending any proceedings, whether civil or criminal, in which judgment is given in his favour or in which he is acquitted, or in connection with any application under section 281 of this Act in which relief is granted to him by the Court.

86D. (1) No company shall make any loan or guarantee any loan made to a director of the company or to a firm of which such director is a partner or to a private company of which such director is a director.

(2) In the event of any contravention of sub-section (1) any director of the company who is a party to such contravention shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, and if default is made in repayment of the loan or in discharging the guarantee shall be liable jointly and severally for the amount unpaid.

(3) This section shall not apply to a private company (except a private company which is the subsidiary company of a public company) or to a banking company.

86E. No director or firm of which such director is a partner or private company of which such director is a director shall, without the consent of the company in general meeting, hold any office of profit under the company except that of a managing director or manager or a legal or technical adviser or a banker:

Provided that nothing herein contained shall apply to a director elected or appointed before the 15th January, 1937,* in respect of any office of profit under the company held by him at the said date.


*Date of commencement of the Indian Companies (Amendment) Act, 1936 (India Act XXII,1936)


 

Explanation. – For the purposes of this section the office of managing agent shall not be deemed to be an office of profit under the company.

86F. Except with the consent of the directors, a director of the company, or the firm of which he is a partner or any partner of such firm, or the private company of which he is a member or director, shall not enter into any contracts for the sale, purchase, or supply of goods and materials with the company:

Provided that nothing herein contained shall affect any such contract or agreement for such sale, purchase or supply entered into before the 15th January, 1937,*.

86G. (1) The company may by extraordinary resolution remove any director, whose period of office is liable to determination at any time by retirement of directors in rotation, before the expiration of his period of office, and may by ordinary resolution appoint another person in his stead. The person so appointed shall be subject to retirement at the same time as if he had become a director on the day on which the director in whose place he is appointed was last elected director. A director so removed shall not be reappointed a director by the board of directors.

(2) This section shall not apply to directors elected or appointed before the 15th January, 1937.*

86H. The directors of a public company or of a subsidiary company of a public company shall not, except with the consent of the company concerned in general meeting –

(a) sell or dispose of the undertaking of the company;

(b) remit any debt due by a director.

86I. (1) The office of a director shall be vacated if –

(a) he fails to obtain within the time specified in sub-section (1)of section 84, or at any time thereafter ceases to hold, the share qualification, if any, necessary for his appointment, or

(b) he is found to be of unsound mind by a Court of competent jurisdiction, or

(c) he is adjudged an insolvent, or

(d) he fails to pay calls made on him in respect of shares held by him within six months from the date of such calls being made, or

(e) he or any firm of which he is a partner or any private company of which he is a director, without the sanction of the company in general meeting, accepts or holds any office of profit under the company other than that of a managing director or manager or a legal or technical adviser or a banker, or

(f) he absents himself from three consecutive meetings of the directors or from all meetings of the directors for a continuous period of three months, whichever is the longer, without leave of absence from the board of directors, or

(g) he or any firm of which he is a partner or any private company of which he is a director accepts a loan or guarantee from the company in contravention of section 86D, or

(h) or he acts in contravention of section 86F.


*Date of commencement of the Indian Companies (Amendment) Act, 1936 (India Act XXII, 1936)


(2) Nothing contained in this section shall be deemed to preclude a company from providing by its articles that the office of director shall be vacated on grounds additional to those specified in this section.

87. (1) Every company shall keep at its registered office a register of its directors, managers and managing agents containing with respect to each of them the following particulars, that is to say: -

(a) in the case of an individual, his present name in full, any former name or surname in full, his usual residential address, his nationality and, if that nationality is not the nationality of origin, his nationality of origin and his business occupation, if any, and if he holds any other directorship or directorships the particulars of such directorship or directorships;

(b) in the case of a corporation, its corporate name and registered or principal office, and the full name, address and nationality of each of its director, and

(c) in the case of a firm, the full name, address and nationality of each partner, and the date on which each became a partner.

(2) The company shall within the periods respectively mentioned in this sub-section send to the Registrar a return in the prescribed form containing the particulars specified in the said register, and a notification in the prescribed form of any change among its directors, managers or managing agents or in any of the particulars contained in the register.

The period within which the said return is to be sent shall be a period of fourteen days from the appointment of the first directors of the company, and the period within which the said notification of a change is to be sent shall be fourteen days from the happening thereof.

(3) The register to be kept under this section shall during business hours (subject to such reasonable restrictions as the company may by its articles or in general meeting impose, so that not less than two hours in each day be allowed for inspection) be open to the inspection of any member of the company without charge and of any other person on payment of one rupee or such less sum as the company may impose for each inspection.

(4) If any inspection required under this section is refused, or if default is made in complying with sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) of this section, the company and every officer of the company who is knowingly and willfully in default shall be liable to a fine of fifty rupees.

(5) In the case of any such refusal, the Court, on application made by the person to whom inspection has been refused and upon notice to the company, may by order direct an immediate inspection of the register.

Managing Agents.

87A. (1) No managing agent shall, after the 15th January, 1937,* be appointed to hold office for a term of more than twenty years at a time.

(2) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in the articles of a company or in any agreement with the company, a managing agent of a company appointed before the 15th January, 1937,* shall not continue to hold office after the expiry of twenty years from the said date unless then reappointed thereto or unless he has been reappointed thereto before the expiry of the said twenty years.

(3) A managing agent whose office is terminated by virtue of the provisions of sub-section (2) shall upon such termination be entitled to a charge upon the assets of the company by way of indemnity for all liabilities or obligations properly incurred by the managing agent on behalf of the company subject to existing charges and encumbrances, if any.

(4) The termination of the office of a managing agent by virtue of the provisions of sub-section (2) shall not take effect until all moneys payable to the managing agent for loans made to or remuneration due up to the date of such termination from the company are paid.

(5) Nothing in this section shall apply to a private company which is not the subsidiary company of a public company.


*Date of commencement of the Indian Companies (Amendment) Act, 1936 (India Act XXII, 1936)


87B. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in the articles of the company or in any agreement with the company –

(a) a company may, by resolution passed at a general meeting of which notice has been given to the managing agent in the same manner as to members of the company, remove a managing agent if he is convicted of an offence in relation to the affairs of the company punishable under the Penal Code, and being under the provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure nonbailable; and, for the purposes of this clause, where the managing agent is a firm or company an offence committed by a member of such firm or a director of or an officer holding a general power-of-attorney from such company shall be deemed to be an offence committed by such firm or company:

Provided that a managing agent shall not be liable to be removed under the provisions hereof if the offending member, director or officer as aforesaid is expelled or dismissed by the managing agent within thirty days from the date of his conviction or if his conviction is set aside on appeal;

(b) the office of a managing agent shall be vacated if he is adjudged insolvent;

(c) a transfer of his office by a managing agent shall be void unless approved by the company in general meeting:

Provided that in the case of a managing agent’s firm a change in the partners thereof shall not be deemed to operate as a transfer of the office of managing agent, so long as one of the original partners shall continue to be a partner of the managing agent’s firm. For the purpose of this proviso “original partners” shall mean, in the case of managing agents appointed before the 15th January, 1937,* partners who were partners at the said date, and in the case of managing agents appointed after the said date, partners who were partners at the date of the appointment;

(d) a charge or assignment of his remuneration or any part thereof effected by a managing agent shall be void as against the company;

(e) if a company is wound up either by the Court or voluntarily, any contract of management made with a managing agent shall be thereupon determined without prejudice, however, to the right of the managing agent to recover any moneys recoverable by the managing agent from the company: Provided that where the Court finds that the winding up is due to the negligence or default of the managing agent himself the managing agent shall not be entitled to receive any compensation for the premature termination of his contract of management; and *Date of commencement of the Indian Companies (Amendment) Act, 1936 (India Act XXII, 1936)

(f) the appointment of a managing agent, the removal of a managing agent and any variation of a managing agent’s contract of management made after the 15th January, 1937,* shall not be valid unless approved by the company by a resolution at a general meeting of the company, notwithstanding anything to the contrary in section 86E:

Provided that nothing herein contained shall apply to the appointment of a company’s first managing agent made prior to the issue of the prospectus or statement in lieu of prospectus where the terms of the appointment of such managing agent are there set forth.

87C. (1) Where any company appoints a managing agent after the 15th January, 1937,* the remuneration of the managing agent shall be a sum based on a fixed percentage of the net annual profits of the company, with provision for a minimum payment in the case of absence of or inadequacy of profits, together with an office allowance to be defined in the agreement of management.

(2) Any stipulation for remuneration additional to or in any other form than the remuneration specified in sub-section (1) shall not be binding on the company unless sanctioned by a special resolution of the company.

(3) For the purposes of this section “net profits” means the profits of the company calculated after allowing for all the usual working charges, interest on loans and advances, repairs and outgoings, depreciation, bounties or subsidies received from Government or from a public body, profits by way of premium on shares sold, profits on sale proceeds of forfeited shares, or profits from the sale of the whole or part of the undertaking of the company, but without any deduction in respect of income-tax or super-tax, or any other tax or duty on income or revenue, or for expenditure by way of interest on debentures or otherwise on capital account, or on account of any sum which may be set aside in each year out of the profits for reserve or any other special fund.

(4) This section shall not apply to a private company except a private company which is the subsidiary company of a public company, or to any company whose principal business is the business of insurance.

87D. (1) No company shall make to a managing agent of the company or to any partner of the firm, if the managing agent is a firm, or to any director of the private company, if the managing agent is a private company, any loan out of moneys of the company or guarantee any loan made to a managing agent.


*Date of commencement of the Indian Companies (Amendment) Act, 1936 (India Act XXII, 1936)


(2) Nothing contained in this section shall apply to any credit held by a managing agent in a current account maintained, subject to limits previously approved by the board of directors, by the company with the managing agent for the purposes of the company’s business.

(3) In the event of any contravention of sub-section (1) any director of the company who is a party to the making of the loan or giving of the guarantee shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, and if default is made in repayment of the loan or discharging the guarantee shall be liable jointly and severally for the amount unpaid.

(4) Nothing in this section shall apply to a private company except a private company which is the subsidiary company of a public company.

(5) Except with the consent of three-fourths of the directors present and entitled to vote on the resolution, a managing agent of the company, or the firm of which he is a partner, or any partner of such firm, or, if the managing agent is a private company, a member or director thereof, shall not enter into any contract for the sale, purchase or supply of goods and materials with the company:

Provided that nothing herein contained shall affect any such contract for such sale, purchase or supply entered into before the 15th January, 1937. *

87E. (1) No company incorporated under this Act after the 15th January, 1937,* which is under the management of a managing agent, shall make any loan to or guarantee any loan made to any company under management by the same managing agent, and no company shall after the expiry of six months from the said date, except by way of renewal of an existing loan or guarantee given, make any loan to or guarantee any loan made to any such company:

Provided that nothing herein contained shall apply to loans made or guarantees given by a company to or on behalf of a company under its own management or loans made by or to a company to or by a subsidiary company thereof or to guarantees given by a company on behalf of a subsidiary company thereof.

(2) In the event of any contravention of the provisions of this section, any director or officer of the company making the loan or giving the guarantee who is knowingly and willfully in default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one thousand rupees and shall be jointly and severally liable for any loss incurred by the company in respect of such loan or guarantee.


*Date of commencement of the Indian Companies (Amendment) Act, 1936 (India Act XXII, 1936).


87F. A company, other than an investment company, that is to say, a company whose principal business is the acquisition and holding of shares, stocks, debentures or other securities, shall not purchase shares or debentures of any company under management by the same managing agent, unless the purchase has been previously approved by a unanimous decision of the board of directors of the purchasing company.

87G. A managing agent shall not exercise in respect of any company of which he is a managing agent a power to issue debentures or, except with the authority of the directors and within the limits fixed by them, a power to invest the funds of the company, and any delegation of any such power by a company to a managing agent shall be void.

87H. A managing agent shall not on his own account engage in any business which is of the same nature as and directly competes with the business carried on by a company under his management or by a subsidiary company of such company.

87I. Notwithstanding anything contained in the articles of a company other than a private company, the directors, if any, appointed by the managing agent shall not exceed in number one-third of the whole number of directors.

 

Contracts.

88. (1) Contracts on behalf of a company may be made as follows (that is to say): -

(i) any contract which if made between private persons, would be by law required to be in writing, signed by the parties to be charged therewith, may be made on behalf of the company in writing signed by any person acting under its authority, express or implied, and may in the same manner be varied or discharged;

(ii) any contract which, if made between private persons, would by law be valid although made by parol only, and not reduced into writing, may be made by parol on behalf of the company by any person acting under its authority, express or implied, and may in the same manner be varied or discharged.

(2) All contracts made according to this section shall be effectual in law and shall bind the company and its successors and all other parties thereof, their heirs, or legal representatives, as the case may be.

89. A bill of exchange, hundi or promissory shall be deemed to have been made, drawn, accepted or endorsed on behalf of a company if made, drawn, accepted or endorsed in the name of, or by or on behalf or on account of, the company by any person acting under its authority, express or implied.

90. A company may, by writing under its common seal, empower any person, either generally or in respect of any specified matters, as its attorney, to execute deeds on its behalf in any place either in or outside the Union of Burma; and every deed signed by such attorney, on behalf of the company, and under his seal, where sealing is required, shall bind the company, and have the same effect as if it were under its common seal.

91. (1) A company whose objects require or comprise the transaction of business beyond the limits of the Union of Burma may, if authorized by its articles, have for use in any territory, district or place not situate in the Union of Burma an official seal which shall be a facsimile of the common seal of the company, with the addition on its face of the name of every territory, district or place where it is to be used.

(2) A company having such an official seal may, by writing under its common seal, authorize any person appointed for the purpose in any territory, district or place not situate in the Union of Burma to affix the same to any deed or other document to which the company is party in that territory, district or place.

(3) The authority of any such agent shall, as between the company and any person dealing with the agent, continue during the period (if any) mentioned in the instrument conferring the authority, or if no period is there mentioned, then until notice of the revocation or determination of the agent’s authority has been given to the person dealing with him.

(4) The person affixing any such official seal shall, by writing under his hand, on the deed or other document to which the seal is affixed, certify the date and place of affixing the same.

(5) A deed or other document to which an official seal is duly affixed shall bind the company as if it had been sealed with the common seal of the company.

91A. (1) Every director who is directly or indirectly concerned or interested in any contract or arrangement entered into by or on behalf of the company shall disclose the nature of his interest at the meeting of the directors at which the contract or arrangement is determined on, if his interest then exists, or in any other case at the first meeting of the directors after the acquisition of his interest or the making of the contract or arrangement:

Provided that a general notice that a director is a director or a member of any specified company or is a member of any specified firm, and is to be regarded as interested in any subsequent transaction with such firm or company, shall as regards any such transaction be sufficient disclosure within the meaning of this sub-section, and after such general notice it shall not be necessary to give any special notice relating to any particular transaction with such firm or company.

(2) Every director who contravenes the provisions of sub-section (1) shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one thousand rupees.

(3) A register shall be kept by the company in which shall be entered particulars of all contracts or arrangements to which sub-section (1) applies, and which shall be open to inspection by any member of the company at the registered office of the company during business hours.

(4) Every officer of the company who knowingly and willfully acts in contravention of the provisions of sub-section (3) shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred rupees.

91B. (1) No director shall, as a director, vote on any contract or arrangement in which he is either directly or indirectly concerned or interested, nor shall his presence count for the purpose of forming a quorum at the time of any such vote; and if he does so vote, his vote shall not be counted:

Provided that the directors or any of them may vote on any contract of indemnity against any loss which they or any one or more of them may suffer by reason of becoming or being sureties or surety for the company.

(2) Every director who contravenes the provisions of sub-section (1) shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one thousand rupees.

(3) This section shall not apply to a private company:

Provided that where a private company is a subsidiary company of a public company, this section shall apply to all contracts or arrangements made on behalf of the subsidiary company with any person other than the holding company.

91C. (1) Where a company enters into a contract for the appointment of a manager or managing agent of the company in which contract any director of the company is directly or indirectly concerned or interested, or varies any such existing contract, the company shall, within twenty-one days from the date of entering into contract or the varying of the contract, send an abstract of the terms of such contract or variation, as the case may be, together with a memorandum clearly indicating the nature of the interest of the director in such contract, or in such variation, to every member; and the contract shall be open to the inspection of any member at the registered office of the company.

(2) If a company makes default in complying with the requirements of sub-section (1) , it shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one thousand rupees; and every officer of the company who knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits the default shall be liable to the like penalty.

91D. (1) Every manager or other agent of a company, other than a private company not being the subsidiary company of a public company, who enters into a contract for or on behalf of the company in which contract the company is an undisclosed principal shall, at the time of entering into the contract, make a memorandum in writhing of the terms of the contract, and specify therein the person with whom it has been made.

(2) Every such manager or other agent shall forthwith deliver the memorandum aforesaid to the company and send copies to the directors, and such memorandum shall be filed in the office of the company and laid before the directors at the next director’s meeting.

(3) If any such manager or other agent makes default in complying with the requirements of this section –

(a) the contract shall, at the option of the company, be void as against the company; and

(b) such manager or other agent shall be liable to a fine not exceeding two hundred rupees.

 

Prospectus.

92. Filing of prospectus.

(1) Every prospectus issued by or on behalf of a company or in relation to any intended company shall be dated and that date shall, unless the contrary be proved, be taken as the date of publication of the prospectus.

(2) A copy of every such prospectus, signed by every person who is named therein as a director or proposed director of the company, or by his agent authorized in writing, shall be filed for registration with the Registrar on or before the date of its publication, and no such prospectus shall be issued until a copy thereof has been so filed for registration.

(3) The Registrar shall not register any prospectus unless it is dated, and the copy thereof signed, in manner required by this section.

(4) Every prospectus shall state on the face of it that a copy has been filed for registration as required by this section.

(5) If a prospectus is issued without a copy thereof being so filed, the company, and every person who is knowingly a party to the issue of the prospectus, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day from the date of issue of the prospectus until a copy thereof is so filed.

93. Specific requirements as to requirements of prospectus.

(1) Every prospectus issued by or on behalf of a company, or by or on behalf of any person who is or has been engaged or interested in the formation of the company, shall state –

(a) the contents of the memorandum, with [the names, descriptions, nationality,]* and addresses of the signatories and the number of shares subscribed for by them respectively; and the number of founders or management or deferred shares (if any) and the nature and extent of the

interest of the holders in the property and profits of the company, and the number of redeemable preference shares intended to be issued with the date or, where no date is fixed, the period of notice required and the proposed method of redemption; and

(b) the number of shares (if any) fixed by the articles as the qualification of a director, and any provision in the articles as to the remuneration of the directors; and

(c) [the names, descriptions, nationality]* and addresses of the directors or proposed directors and of the managers or proposed managers and managing agents or proposed managing agents (if any), and any provision in the articles or in any contracts as to the appointment of managers or managing agents and the remuneration payable to them; and

(d) the minimum subscription on which the directors may proceed to allotment, and the amount payable on application and allotment on each share; and in the case of a second or subsequent offer of shares the amount offered for subscription on each previous allotment made within the two preceding years, and the amount actually allotted, and the amount (if any) paid on the shares so allotted; and

(e) the number and amount of shares and debentures which within the two preceding years have been issued, or agreed to be issued, as fully or partly paid up otherwise in cash, and in the latter case the extent to which they are so paid up, and in either case the consideration for which those shares or debentures have been issued or agreed to be issued; and

(ee) where any issue of shares or debentures is underwritten, the names of the underwriters, and the opinion of the directors that the resources of the underwriters are sufficient to discharge the underwriting obligations; and

(f) the names and addresses of the vendors of any property purchased or acquired by the company, or proposed so to be purchased or acquired, which is to be paid for wholly or partly out of the proceeds of the issue offered for subscription by the prospectus, or the purchase or acquisition of which has not been completed at the date of issue of the prospectus, and the amount payable in cash, shares or debentures to the vendor, and, where there is more than one separate vendor or the company is a sub-purchaser, the amount so payable to each vendor:

Provided that where the vendors or any of them are a firm, the members of the firm shall not be treated as separate vendors; and

(ff) Where any property referred to in clause (f) has within the two years preceding the issue of the prospectus been transferred by sale, the amount paid by the purchaser at each such transfer so far as the information is available and, where any such property is a business, the profits accruing from such business during each of the three years immediately preceding the issue of the prospectus, or during each year of the existence of the business if less than three years, so far as the information is available. A balance sheet of the business concerned made up to a date not more than ninety days before the date of the issue of the prospectus shall be appended to the prospectus ; and

(g) the amount (if any) paid or payable as purchase-money, in cash, shares or debentures, for any such property as afore-said, specifying the amount (if any) payable for goodwill; and

(h) the amount (if any) paid within the two preceding years or payable as commission for subscribing or agreeing to subscribe, or procuring or agreeing to procure, subscriptions for any shares in, or debentures of, the company, or as discount in respect of shares issued, showing separately the amount, if any, so paid to the managing agents: Provided that it shall not be necessary to state the commission payable to sub-underwriters; and

(i) the amount or estimated amount of preliminary expenses; and Prospectus.


*Substituted by Act XXIII, 1955


92. Filing of prospectus.

(1) Every prospectus issued by or on behalf of a company or in relation to any intended company shall be dated and that date shall, unless the contrary be proved, be taken as the date of publication of the prospectus.

(2) A copy of every such prospectus, signed by every person who is named therein as a director or proposed director of the company, or by his agent authorized in writing, shall be filed for registration with the Registrar on or before the date of its publication, and no such prospectus shall be issued until a copy thereof has been so filed for registration.

(3) The Registrar shall not register any prospectus unless it is dated, and the copy thereof signed, in manner required by this section.

(4) Every prospectus shall state on the face of it that a copy has been filed for registration as required by this section.

(5) If a prospectus is issued without a copy thereof being so filed, the company, and every person who is knowingly a party to the issue of the prospectus, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day from the date of issue of the prospectus until a copy thereof is so filed.

93. Specific requirements as to requirements of prospectus.

(1) Every prospectus issued by or on behalf of a company, or by or on behalf of any person who is or has been engaged or interested in the formation of the company, shall state –

(a) the contents of the memorandum, with [the names, descriptions, nationality,]* and addresses of the signatories and the number of shares subscribed for by them respectively; and the number of founders or management or deferred shares (if any) and the nature and extent of the interest of the holders in the property and profits of the company, and the number of redeemable preference shares intended to be issued with the date or, where no date is fixed, the period of notice required and the proposed method of redemption; and

(b) the number of shares (if any) fixed by the articles as the qualification of a director, and any provision in the articles as to the remuneration of the directors; and

(c) [the names, descriptions, nationality]* and addresses of the directors or proposed directors and of the managers or proposed managers and managing agents or proposed managing agents (if any), and any provision in the articles or in any contracts as to the appointment of managers or managing agents and the remuneration payable to them; and

(d) the minimum subscription on which the directors may proceed to allotment, and the amount payable on application and allotment on each share; and in the case of a second or subsequent offer of shares the amount offered for subscription on each previous allotment made within the two preceding years, and the amount actually allotted, and the amount (if any) paid on the shares so allotted; and

(e) the number and amount of shares and debentures which within the two preceding years have been issued, or agreed to be issued, as fully or partly paid up otherwise in cash, and in the latter case the extent to which they are so paid up, and in either case the consideration for which those shares or debentures have been issued or agreed to be issued; and

(ee) where any issue of shares or debentures is underwritten, the names of the underwriters, and the opinion of the directors that the resources of the underwriters are sufficient to discharge the underwriting obligations; and

(f) the names and addresses of the vendors of any property purchased or acquired by the company, or proposed so to be purchased or acquired, which is to be paid for wholly or partly out of the proceeds of the issue offered for subscription by the prospectus, or the purchase or acquisition of which has not been completed at the date of issue of the prospectus, and the amount payable in cash, shares or debentures to the vendor, and, where there is more than one separate vendor or the company is a sub-purchaser, the amount so payable to each vendor:

Provided that where the vendors or any of them are a firm, the members of the firm shall not be treated as separate vendors; and

(ff) Where any property referred to in clause (f) has within the two years preceding the issue of the prospectus been transferred by sale, the amount paid by the purchaser at each such transfer so far as the information is available and, where any such property is a business, the profits accruing from such business during each of the three years immediately preceding the issue of the prospectus, or during each year of the existence of the business if less than three years, so far as the information is available. A balance sheet of the business concerned made up to a date not more than ninety days before the date of the issue of the prospectus shall be appended to the prospectus ; and

(g) the amount (if any) paid or payable as purchase-money, in cash, shares or debentures, for any such property as afore-said, specifying the amount (if any) payable for goodwill; and

(h) the amount (if any) paid within the two preceding years or payable as commission for subscribing or agreeing to subscribe, or procuring or agreeing to procure, subscriptions for any shares in, or debentures of, the company, or as discount in respect of shares issued, showing separately the amount, if any, so paid to the managing agents: Provided that it shall not be necessary to state the commission payable to sub-underwriters; and

(i) the amount or estimated amount of preliminary expenses; and


*Substituted by Act XXIII, 1955


(a) in connection with a bona fide invitation to a person to enter into an underwriting agreement with respect to the shares or debentures; or

(b) in relation to shares or debentures which were not offered to the public.

If any person acts in contravention of the provisions of this subsection, he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred rupees.

97. Saving in certain cases of non compliance with section 93.

(1) If a prospectus is issued which does not comply with the provisions of section 93, every person who is knowingly responsible for the issue of such prospectus shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day from the day of the issue of the prospectus until a copy complying with the requirements of section 93 is filed.

(2) In the event of non-compliance with or contravention of any of the requirements of section 93, a director or other person responsible for the prospectus shall not incur any liability by reason of the noncompliance or contravention if he proves that –

(a) as regards any matter not disclosed, he was not cognizant thereof; or

(b) the non-compliance or contravention arose from an honest mistake of fact on his part; or

(c) the non-compliance or contravention was in respect of matters which in the opinion of the Court were immaterial, or was otherwise such as ought in the opinion of the Court, having regard to all the circumstances of the case, reasonably to be excused:

Provided that, in the event of non-compliance with or contravention of the requirements contained in clause (n) of sub-section (1) of section 93, no such director or other person shall incur any liability in respect of the non-compliance or contravention unless it be proved that he had knowledge of the matters not disclosed.

98. Obligations of companies where no prospectus is issued.

(1) A company which does not issue a prospectus on or with reference to its formation shall not allot any of its shares or debentures unless before the first allotment of either shares or debentures there has been filed with the Registrar a statement in lieu of prospectus, signed by every person who is named therein as a director or a proposed director of the company or by his agent authorized in writing, in the form and containing the particulars set out in the form marked I in the Second Schedule.

(2) This section shall not apply to a private company or to a company which has allotted any shares or debentures before the commencement of this Act, or in so far as it relates to the allotment of shares to a company limited by a guarantee and not having a share capital.

98A. Document offering shares or debentures for sale to be deemed a prospectus.

(1) Where a company allots or agrees to allot any shares in or debentures of the company with a view to all or any of those shares or debentures being offered for sale to the public, any document by which the offer for sale to the public is made shall for all purposes be deemed to be a prospectus issued by the company, and all enactments and rules of law as to the contents of prospectuses and to liability in respect of statements in and omissions from prospectuses or otherwise relating to prospectuses shall apply and have effect accordingly as if the shares or debentures had been offered to the public for subscription and as if persons accepting the offer in respect of any shares or debentures were subscribers for those shares or debentures, but without prejudice to the liability, if any, of the persons by whom the offer is made in respect of mis-statements contained in the document or otherwise in respect thereof.

(2) For the purposes of this Act it shall, unless the contrary is proved, be evidence that an allotment of or an agreement to allot shares or debentures was made with a view to the shares or debentures being offered for sale to the public, if it is shown –

(a) that an offer of the shares or debentures or of any of them for sale to the public was made within six months after the allotment or agreement to allot; or

(b) that at the date when the offer was made the whole of the consideration to be received by the company in respect of the shares or debentures had not been so received.

(3) Section 97 shall apply to the person or persons making the offer as though they were persons named in a prospectus as directors of a company, and the provisions of section 93 shall have effect as if it required a prospectus to state, in addition to the matters required by that section to be stated in a prospectus, -

(a) then net amount of the consideration received or to be received by the company in respect of the shares or debentures to which the offer relates, and

(b) the place and time at which the contract under which the said shares or debentures have been or are to be allotted may be inspected.

(4) Where a person making an offer to which this section relates is a company or a firm, it shall be sufficient if the document aforesaid is signed on behalf of the company or firm by all directors of the company or not less than half of the partners, as the case may be, and any such director or partner may sign by his agent authorized in writing.

99. Restriction on terms mentioned in prospectus or statement in lieu of prospectus.

A company shall not, at any time, vary the terms of a contract referred to in the prospectus or statement in lieu of prospectus, except subject to the approval of the company in general meeting.

100. Liability for statement in prospectus.

(1) Where prospectus invites persons to subscribe for shares in or debentures of a company, every person who is a director of the company at the time of the issue of the prospectus, and every person who has authorized the naming of himself and is named in the prospectus as a director or as having agreed to become a director either immediately or after an interval of time, and every promoter of the company, and every person who has authorized the issue of the prospectus, shall be liable to pay compensation to all persons who subscribe for any shares or debentures on the faith of the prospectus for all loss or damage they may have sustained by reason of any misleading or untrue statement therein, or in any report or memorandum appearing on the face thereof, or by reference incorporated therein or issued therewith, unless it is proved –

(a) with respect to every misleading or untrue statement not purporting to be made on the authority of an expert or of a public official document or statement; that he had reasonable ground to believe and did up to the time of the allotment of the shares or debentures, as the case may be, believe that that the statement fairly represented the facts or was true;

(b) with respect to every misleading or untrue statement purporting to be a statement by or contained in what purports to be a copy of or extract from a report or valuation of an expert, that it fairly represented the statement, or was a correct and fair copy of or extract from the report or valuation: Provided that the director, person named as director, promoter or person who authorized the issue of the prospectus shall be liable to pay compensation as aforesaid if it is proved that he had no reasonable ground to believe that the person making the statement, report or valuation was competent to make it; and

(c) with respect to every misleading or untrue statement purporting to be a statement made by an official person or contained in what purports to be a copy of or extract from a public official document, that it was a correct and fair representation of the statement or copy of or extract from the document; or unless it is proved –

(i) that having consented to become a director of the company he withdrew his consent before the issue of the prospectus, and that it was issued without his authority or consent; or

(ii) that the prospectus was issued without his knowledge or consent, and that, on becoming aware of its issue, he forthwith gave reasonable public notice that it was issued without his knowledge or consent; or

(iii)that, after the issue of the prospectus and before allotment thereunder, he, on becoming aware of any misleading or untrue statement therein, withdrew his consent thereto, and gave reasonable public notice of the withdrawal and of the reason therefor.

(2) Where a company existing at the commencement of this Act* has issued shares or debentures, and for the purpose of obtaining further capital by subscriptions for shares or debentures issues a prospectus, a director shall not be liable in respect of any statement therein unless he has authorized the issue of the prospectus, or has adopted or ratified it.

(3) Where the prospectus contains the name of a person as a director of the company, or as having agreed to become a director thereof, and he has not consented to become a director, or has withdrawn his consent before the issue of the prospectus, and has not authorized or consented to the issue thereof, the directors of the company, except any without whose knowledge or consent the prospectus was issued, and any other person who authorized the issue thereof, shall be liable to indemnify the person named as aforesaid against all damages, costs and expenses to which he may be made liable by reason of his name having been inserted in the prospectus, or in defending himself against any suit or legal proceedings brought against him in respect thereof.

(4) Every person who, by reason of his being a director or named as a director or as having agreed to become a director, or of his having authorized the issue of the prospectus, becomes liable to make any payment under this section, may recover contribution, as in cases of contract, from any other person who, if sued separately, would have been liable to make the same payment, unless the person who has become so liable was, and that other person was not, guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation.

(5) For the purposes of this section –

(a) the expression “promoter” means a promoter who was a party to the preparation of the prospectus, or the portion thereof containing the misleading or untrue statement, but does not include any person by reason of his acting in a professional capacity for persons engaged in procuring the formation of the company;

(b) the expression “expert” includes engineer, valuer, accountant and any other person whose profession gives authority to a statement made by him.


*i.e., on the Ist April, 1914.


Allotment.

101. Restriction as to allotment.

(1) No allotment shall be made of any share capital of a company offered to the public for subscription unless the amount stated in the prospectus as the minimum amount which in the opinion of the directors must be raised by the issue of share capital in order to provide the sums or, if any part thereof is to be defrayed in any other manner, the balance of the sums required to be provided in respect of the matters specified in sub-section (2) has been subscribed, and the sum of at least five per cent. thereof has been paid to or received in cash by the company.

(2) The matters for which provision for the raising of a minimum amount of share capital must be made by the directors are the following, namely: -

(a) the purchase price of any property purchased or to be purchased which is to be defrayed in whole or in part out of the proceeds of the issue;

(b) any preliminary expenses payable by the company and any commission so payable to any person in consideration of his agreeing to subscribe for or of his procuring or agreeing to procure subscriptions for any shares in the company;

(c) the repayment of any moneys borrowed by the company in respect of any of the foregoing matters; and

(d) working capital.

(2A) The amount referred to in sub-section (1) as the amount stated in the prospectus shall be reckoned exclusively of any amount payable otherwise than in cash and is in this Act referred to as the minimum subscription.

(2B) All moneys received from applicants for shares shall be deposited and kept in a scheduled bank until returned in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (4) or until the certificate to commence business is obtained under section 103.

(2C) In the event of any contravention of the provisions of sub-section (2B) every promoter, director or other person knowingly responsible for such contravention shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred rupees.

(3) The amount payable on application on each share shall not be less than five per cent, of the nominal amount of the share.

(4) If the conditions aforesaid have not been complied with on the expiration of one hundred and eighty days after the first issue of the prospectus, all money received from applicants for shares shall be forthwith repaid to them without interest, and, if any such money is not so repaid within one hundred and ninety days after the issue of the prospectus, the directors of the company shall be jointly and severally liable to repay that money with interest at the rate of seven per cent. per annum from the expiration of the one hundred and ninetieth day: Provided that a director shall not be liable if he proves that the loss of the money was not due to any misconduct or negligence on his part.

(5) Any condition requiring or binding any applicant for shares to waive compliance with any requirement of this section shall be void.

(6) This section, except sub-section (3) thereof, shall not apply to any allotment of shares subsequent to the first allotment of shares offered to the public for subscription.

(7) In the case of the first allotment of share capital payable in cash of a company which does not issue any invitation to the public to subscribe for its shares, no allotment shall be made unless the minimum subscription (that is to say) –

(a) the amount (if any) fixed by the memorandum or articles and named in the statement in lieu of prospectus as the minimum subscription upon which the directors may proceed to allotment ; or

(b) if no amount is so fixed and named the whole amount of the share capital other than that issued or agreed to be issued as fully or partly paid up otherwise than in cash; has been subscribed and an amount not less than five per cent. of the nominal amount of each share payable in cash has been paid to and received by the company.

(8) Sub-section (7) shall not apply to a private company or to a company which has allotted any shares or debentures before the commencement of this Act.

102. Effect of irregular allotment.

(1) An allotment made by a company to an applicant in contravention of the provisions of section 101 shall be voidable at the instance of the applicant within one month after the holding of the statutory meeting of the company and not later, or, in any case where the company is not required to hold a statutory meeting or where the allotment is made after the holding of the statutory meeting, within one month after the date of the allotment and not later, and shall be so voidable notwithstanding that the company is in course of being wound up.

(2) If any director of a company knowingly contravenes or permits or authorizes the contravention of any of the provisions of section 101 with respect to allotment, he shall be liable to compensate the company and the allottee respectively for any loss, damages or costs which the company or the allottee may have sustained or incurred thereby: Provided that proceedings to recover any such loss, damages or costs shall not be commenced after the expiration of two years from the date of the allotment.

103. Restriction on commencement of business.

(1) A company shall not commence any business or exercise any borrowing powers unless –

(a) shares held subject to the payment of the whole amount thereof in cash have been allotted to an amount not less in the whole than the minimum subscription; and

(b) every director of the company has paid to the company on each of the shares taken or contracted to be taken by him, and for which he is liable to pay in cash, a proportion equal to the proportion payable on application and allotment on the shares offered for public subscription or, in the case of a company which does not issue a prospectus inviting the public to subscribe for its shares, on the shares payable in cash; and

(c) there has been filed with the Registrar a duly verified declaration by the secretary or one of the directors in the prescribed form that the aforesaid conditions have been complied with; and

(d) in the case of a company which does not issue a prospectus inviting the public to subscribe for its shares, there has been filed with the Registrar a statement in lieu of prospectus.

(2) The Registrar shall, on the filing of a duly verified declaration in accordance with the provisions of this section, certify that the company is entitled to commence business, and that certificate shall be conclusive evidence that the company is so entitled:

Provided that, in the case of a company which does not issue a prospectus inviting the public to subscribe for its shares, the Registrar shall not give such a certificate unless a statement in lieu of prospectus has been filed with him.

(3) Any contract made by a company before the date at which it is entitled to commence business shall be provisional only, and shall not be binding on the company until that date, and on that date it shall become binding.

(4) Nothing in this section shall prevent the simultaneous offer for subscription or allotment of any shares and debentures or the receipt of any money payable on application for debentures.

(5) If any company commences business or exercise borrowing powers in contravention of this section, every person who is responsible for the contravention shall, without prejudice to any other liability, be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred rupees for every day during which the contravention continues.

(6) Nothing in this section shall apply to a private company, or to a company registered before the commencement of this Act which does not issue a prospectus inviting the public to subscribe for its shares or, in so far as its provisions relate to shares, to a company limited by guarantee and not having a share capital.

104. Return as to allotments.

(1) Whenever a company having a share capital makes any allotment of its shares, the company shall, within one month thereafter –

(a) file with the Registrar a return of the allotments, stating the number and nominal amount of the shares comprised in the allotment, [the names, address, nationality]* and descriptions of the allottees, and the amount (if any) paid or due and payable on each share; and

(b) in the case of shares allotted as fully or partly paid up otherwise than in cash, produce for the inspection and examination of the Registrar a contract in writing constituting the title of the allottee to the allotment, together with any contract of sale, or for service or other consideration in respect of which that allotment was made, such contracts being duly stamped, and file with the Registrar copies verified in the prescribed manner of all such contracts, and a return stating the number and nominal amount of shares so allotted, the extent to which they are to be treated as paid up, and the consideration for which they have been allotted.


*Substituted by Act XXIII, 1955


(2) Where such a contract as above mentioned is not reduced to writing, the company shall, within one month after the allotment, file with the Registrar the prescribed particulars of the contract stamped with the same stamp-duty as would have been payable if the contract had been reduced to writing, and these particulars shall be deemed to be an instrument within the meaning of the Burma Stamp Act, and the Registrar may, as a condition of filing the particulars, require that the duty payable thereon be adjudicated under section 31 of that Act.

(3) If default is made in complying with the requirements of this section, every officer of the company who is knowingly a party to the default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred rupees for every day during which the default continues:

Provided that, in case of default in filing with the Registrar within one month after the allotment any document required to be filed by this section, the company, or any person liable for the default, may apply to the Court for relief, and the Court, if satisfied that the omission to file the document was accidental or due to inadvertence or that on other grounds it is just and equitable to grant relief, may make an order extending the time for the filing of the document for such period as the Court may think proper.

(4) Nothing in this section shall apply to the issue and allotment by a company of shares which under the provisions of its articles were forfeited for non-payment of calls.

Commissions and Discounts.

105. Power to pay certain commissions and prohibition of payment of all other commissions, discounts, etc.

(1) It shall be lawful for a company to pay a commission to any person in consideration of his subscribing or agreeing to subscribe, whether absolutely or conditionally, for any shares in the company, or procuring or agreeing to procure subscriptions, whether absolute or conditional, for any shares in the company, if the payment of the commission is authorized by the articles and the commission paid or agreed to be paid does not exceed the amount or rate so authorized, and if the amount or rate per cent, of the commission paid or agreed to be paid is –

(a) in the case of shares offered to the public for subscription, disclosed in the prospectus; or

(b) in the case of shares not offered to the public for subscription, disclosed in the statement in lieu of prospectus, or in a statement in the prescribed form signed in like manner as a statement in lieu of prospectus and filed with the Registrar, and where a circular or notice, not being a prospectus, inviting subscription for the shares is issued, also disclosed in that circular or notice.

(2) Save as aforesaid and save as provided in section 105A, no company shall apply any of its shares or capital money either directly or indirectly in payment of any commission, discount or allowance, to any person in consideration of his subscribing or agreeing to subscribe, whether absolutely or conditionally, for any shares of the company, or procuring or agreeing to procure subscriptions, whether absolute or conditional, for any shares in the company, whether the shares or money be so applied by being added to the purchase-money of any property acquired by the company or to the contract price of any work to be executed for the company, or the money be paid out of the nominal purchase-money or contract price, or otherwise.

(3) Nothing in this section shall affect the power of any company to pay such brokerage as it has heretofore been lawful for a company to pay, and a vendor to, promoter of, or other person who receives payment in money or shares from a company shall have and shall be deemed always to have had power to apply any part of the money or shares so received in payment of any commission, the payment of which, if made directly by the company, would have been legal under this section.

105A. Power to issue shares at a discount.

(1) Subject to the provisions of this section, it shall be lawful for a company to issue at a discount shares in the company of a class already issued:

Provided that –

(a) the issue of the shares at a discount must be authorized by resolution passed in general meeting of the company and must be sanctioned by the Court;

(b) the resolution must specify the maximum rate of discount (not exceeding ten per cent. in any case) at which shares are to be issued;

(c) not less than one year must at the date of issue have elapsed since the date on which the company was entitled to commence business;

(d) the shares to be issued at a discount must be issued within six months after the date on which the issue is sanctioned by the Court or within such extended time as the Court may allow.

(2) Every prospectus relating to the issue of the shares and every balance sheet issued by the company subsequently to the issue of the shares must contain particulars of the discount allowed on the issue of the shares, or of so much of that discount as has not been written off at the date of the issue of the document in question.

(3) If default is made in complying with sub-section (2), the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees.

105B. Issue of redeemable preference shares.

(1) Subject to the provisions of this section, a company limited by shares may, if so authorized by its articles, issue preference shares which are, or at the option of the company are to be, liable to be redeemed:

Provided that –

(a) no such shares shall be redeemed except out of profits of the company which would otherwise be available for dividend or out of the proceeds of a fresh issue of shares made for the purposes of the redemption or out of sale proceeds of any property of the company;

(b) no such shares shall be redeemed unless they are fully paid;

(c) where any such shares are redeemed otherwise than out of the proceeds of a fresh issue, there shall, out of profits which would otherwise have been available for dividend, be transferred to a reserve fund, to be called “the capital redemption reserve fund,” a sum equal to the amount applied in redeeming the shares, and the provisions of this Act relating to the reduction of the share capital of a company shall, except as provided in this section, apply as if the capital redemption reserve fund were paid-up share capital of the company.

(d) where any such shares are redeemed out of the proceeds of a fresh issue, the premium, if any, payable on redemption must have been provided for out of the profits of the company before the shares are redeemed.

(2) There shall be included in every balance-sheet of a company which has issued redeemable preference shares a statement specifying what part of the issued capital of the company consists of such shares and the date on or before which those shares are, or are to be, liable to be redeemed or, where no definite date is fixed for redemption, the period of notice to be given for redemption.

If a company fails to comply with the provisions of this sub-section, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one thousand rupees.

(3) Subject to the provisions of this section, the redemption of preference shares thereunder may be effected on such terms and in such manner as may be provided by the articles of the company.

(4) Where in pursuance of this section a company has redeemed or is about to redeem any preference shares, it shall have power to issue shares up to the nominal amount of the shares redeemed or to be redeemed as if those shares had never been issued, and accordingly the share capital of the company shall not for the purpose of calculating the fees payable under section 249 be deemed to be increased by the issue of shares in pursuance of this sub-section:

Provided that, where new shares are issued before the redemption of the old shares, the new shares shall not, so far as relates to stamp duty, be deemed to have been issued in pursuance of this sub-section unless the old shares are redeemed within one month after the issue of the new shares.

(5) Where new shares have been issued in pursuance of the last foregoing sub-section, the capital redemption reserve fund may, notwithstanding anything in this section, be applied by the company, up to an amount equal to the nominal amount of the shares so issued, in paying up unissued shares of the company to be issued to members of the company as fully paid bonus shares.

105C. Further issue of shares. Where the directors decide to increase the capital of the company by the issue of further shares, such shares shall be offered to the members in proportion to the existing shares held by each member (irrespective of class), and such offer shall be made by notice specifying the number of shares to which the member is entitled, and limiting a time within which the offer, if not accepted, will be deemed to be declined; and after the expiration of such time, or on receipt of an intimation from the member to whom such notice is given that he declines to accept the shares offered, the directors may dispose of the same in such manner as they think most beneficial to the company.

106. Statement in balance sheet as to commissions and discounts. Where a company has paid any sums by way of commission in respect of any shares or debentures or allowed any sums by way of discount in respect of any debentures, the total amount so paid or allowed, or so much thereof as has not been written off, shall be stated in every balance-sheet of the company until the whole amount thereof has been written off.

Payment of Interest out of Capital.

107. Where any shares of a company are issued for the purpose of raising money to defray the expenses of the construction of any works or buildings or the provision of any plant which cannot be made profitable for a lengthened period, the company may pay interest on so much of that share capital as if for the time being paid up for the period and subject to the conditions and restrictions in this section mentioned, and may charge the same to capital as part of the cost of construction of the work or building or the provision of plant:

Provided that –

(1) no such payment shall be made unless the same is authorized by the articles or by special resolution;

(2) no such payment, whether authorized by the articles or by special resolution, shall be made without the previous sanction of the President of the Union, which sanction shall be conclusive evidence for the purposes of this section that the shares of the company, in respect of which such sanction is given, have been issued for a purpose specified in this section;

(3) before sanctioning any such payment, the President of the Union may, at the expense of the company, appoint a person to inquire and report to the President of the Union as to the circumstances of the case, and may, before making the appointment, require the company to give security for the payment of the costs of the inquiry;

(4) the payment shall be made only for such period as may be determined by the President of the Union, and such period shall in no case extend beyond the close of the half-year next after the half-year during which the works or buildings have been actually completed or the plant provided;

(5) the rate of interest shall in no case exceed four per cent. per annum or such lower rate as the President of the Union may, by notification in the Gazette, prescribe;

(6) the payment of the interest shall not operate as a reduction of the amount paid up on the shares in respect of which it is paid;

(7) the accounts of the company shall show the share capital on which, and the rate at which, interest has been paid out of capital during the period to which the accounts relate;

(8) nothing in this section shall affect any company to which the Railway Companies Act or the Tramways Act applies.

Certificates of Shares, etc.

108. (1) Every company shall, within three months after the allotment of any of its shares, debentures or debenture stock, and within there months after the registration of the transfer of any such shares, debentures or debenture stock, complete and have ready for delivery the certificates of all shares, the debentures, and the certificates of all debenture stock allotted or transferred, unless the conditions of issue of the shares, debentures or debenture stock otherwise provide.

(2) If default is made in complying with the requirements of this section, the company, and every officer of the company who is knowingly a party to the default, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day during which the default continues.

 

Information as to Mortgages, Charges, etc.

109. (1) Every mortgage or charge created after the commencement of this Act by a company and being either –

(a) a mortgage or charge for the purpose of securing any issue of debentures; or

(b) a mortgage or charge on uncalled share capital of the company; or

(c) a mortgage or charge on any immoveable property wherever situate, or any interest therein; or

(d) a mortgage or charge on any book debts of the company; or

(e) a mortgage or a charge, not being a pledge on any moveable property of the company except stock-in-trade; or

(f) a floating charge on the undertaking or property of the company;

shall, so far as any security on the company’s property or undertaking is thereby conferred, be void against the liquidator and any creditor of the company unless the prescribed particulars of the mortgage or charge, together with the instrument (if any) by which the mortgage or charge is created or evidenced, or a copy thereof verified in the prescribed manner are filed with the Registrar for registration in manner required by this Act within twenty-one days after the date of its creation, but without prejudice to any contract or obligation for repayment of the money thereby secured, and when a mortgage or charge becomes void under this section, the money secured thereby shall immediately become payable:

Provided that –

(i) in the case of a mortgage or charge created out of the Union of Burma, comprising solely property situate outside the Union of Burma, twenty-one days after the date on which the instrument or copy could, in due course of post and if dispatched with due diligence, have been received in the Union of Burma shall be substituted for twenty-one days after the date of the creating of the mortgage or charge as the time within which the particulars and instrument or copy are to be filed with the particulars and instrument or copy are to be filed with the Registrar; and

(ii) where the mortgage or charge is created in the Union of Burma but comprises property outside the Union of Burma, the instrument creating or purporting to create the mortgage or charge or a copy thereof verified in the prescribed manner may be filed for registration notwithstanding that further proceedings may be necessary to make the mortgage or charge valid or effectual according to the law of the country in which the property is situate; and

(iii)where a negotiable instrument has been given to secure the payment of any book debts of a company, the deposit of the instrument for the purpose of securing an advance to the company shall not for the purposes of this section be treated as a mortgage or charge on those book debts; and

(iv) the holding of debentures entitling the holder to a charge on immoveable property shall not be deemed to be an interest in immoveable property.

(2) Where any mortgage or charge on any property of a company required to be registered under this section has been so registered, any person acquiring such property or any part thereof, or any share or interest therein, shall be deemed to have notice of the said mortgage or charge as from the date of such registration.

109A. (1) Where after the 15th January, 1937,* a company registered in the Union of Burma acquires any property which is subject to a charge of any such kind as would, if it had been created by the company after the acquisition of the property, have been required to be registered under this Part, the company shall cause the prescribed particulars of the charge, together with copy (certified in the prescribed manner to be a correct copy) of the instrument, if any, by which the charge was created or is evidenced, to be delivered to the Registrar for registration in manner required by this Act within twentyone days after the date on which the acquisition is completed:

Provided that, if the property is situate and the charge was created outside the Union of Burma, twenty-one days after the date on which the copy of the instrument could, in due course of post and if dispatched with due diligence, have been received in the Union of Burma shall be substituted for twenty-one days after the completion of the acquisition as the time within which the particulars and the copy of the instrument are to be delivered to the Registrar.

(2) If default is made in complying with this section, the company and every officer of the company who is knowingly and willfully in default shall be liable to a fine of five hundred rupees.

110. Where a series of debentures containing or giving by reference to any other instrument any charge to the benefit of which the debenture-holders of that series are entitled pari passu is created by a company, it shall be sufficient for the purposes of section 109 if there are filed with Registrar within twenty-one days after the execution of the deed containing the charge or, if there is no such deed, after the execution of any debentures of the series, the following particulars: -

(a) the total amount secured by the whole series; and

(b) the dates of the resolution authorizing the issue of the series and the date of the covering deed (if any) by which the security is created or defined; and

(c) a general description of the property charged; and


*Date of commencement of the Indian Companies (Amendment) Act, 1936 (India Act XXII, 1936)


(d) the names of the trustees (if any) for the debenture-holders; together with the deed or a copy thereof verified in the prescribed manner containing the charge, or if there is no such deed, one of the debentures of the series, and the Registrar shall, on payment of the prescribed fee, enter those particulars in the register;

111. Where any commission, allowance or discount has been paid or made either directly or indirectly by the company to any person in consideration of his subscribing or agreeing to subscribe, whether absolutely or conditionally, for any debentures of the company, or procuring or agreeing to procure subscriptions, whether absolute or conditional, for any such debentures, the particulars required to be filed for registration under section 109 and 110 shall include particulars as to the amount or rate per cent, of the commission, discount or allowance so paid or made, but an omission to do this shall not affect the validity of the debentures issued:

Provided that the deposit of any debentures as security for any debt of the company shall not for the purposes of this provision be treated as the issue of the debentures at a discount.

112. (1) The Registrar shall keep, with respect to each company, a register in the prescribed form of all mortgages and charges created by the company after the commencement of this Act and requiring registration under section 109, and shall, no payment of the prescribed fee, enter in the register, with respect to every such mortgage or charge, the date of creation, the amount secured by it, short particulars of the property mortgaged or charged, and the names of the mortgagees or persons entitled to the charge.

(2) After making the entry required by sub-section (1), the Registrar shall return the instrument (if any) or the verified copy thereof, as the case may be, filed in accordance with the provisions of section 109 or section 110, to the person filing the same.

(3) The register kept in pursuance of this section shall be open to inspection by any person on payment of the prescribed fee, not exceeding one rupee for each inspection.

113. The Registrar shall keep a chronological index, in the prescribed form and with the prescribed particulars, of the mortgages or charges registered with him under this Act.

114. The Registrar shall give a certificate under his had of the registration of any mortgage or charge registered in pursuance of section 109, stating the amount thereby secured, and the certificate shall be conclusive evidence that the requirements of section 109 to 112 as to registration have been complied with.

115. The company shall cause a copy of every certificate of registration, given under section 114, to be endorsed on every debenture or certificate of debenture stock which is issued by the company, and the payment of which is secured by the mortgage or charge so registered:

Provided that nothing in this section shall be construed as requiring a company to cause a certificate of registration of any mortgage or charge so given to be endorsed on any debenture or certificate of debenture stock which has been issued by the company before the mortgage or charge was created.

116. (1) It shall be the duty of the company to file with the Registrar for registration the prescribed particulars of every mortgage or charge created by the company and of the issues of debentures of a series, requiring registration under section 109, but registration of any such mortgage or charge may be effected on the application of any person interested therein.

(2) Where the registration is effected on the application of some person other than the company, that person shall be entitled to recover from the company the amount of any fees properly paid by him to the Registrar on the registration.

(3) Whenever the terms or conditions or extent or operation of any mortgage or charge registered under this section are modified, it shall be the duty of the company to send to the Registrar the particulars of such modification, and the provisions of this section as to registration of a mortgage or a charge shall apply to such modification of the mortgage or charge as aforesaid.

117. Every company shall cause a copy of every instrument creating any mortgage or charge requiring registration under section 109 to be kept at the registered office of the company: Provided that, in the case of a series of uniform debentures, a copy of one such debenture shall be sufficient.

118. (1) If any person obtains an order for the appointment of a receiver of the property of a company, or appoints such a receiver under any powers contained in any instrument, he shall, within fifteen days from the date of the order or of the appointment under the powers contained in the instrument, file notice of the fact with the Registrar, and the Registrar shall, on payment of the prescribed fee, enter the fact in the register of mortgages and charges.

(2) If any person makes default in complying with the requirements of this section, he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day during which the default continues.

119. (1) Every receiver of the property of a company who has been appointed under the powers contained in any instrument, and who has taken possession, shall once in every half-year while he remains in possession, and also no ceasing to act as receiver, file with the Registrar an abstract in the prescribed form of his receipts and payments during the period to which the abstract relates, and shall also, on ceasing to act as receiver, file with the Registrar notice to that effect, and the Registrar shall enter the notice in the register of mortgages and charges.

(2) Where a receiver of the property of a company has been appointed, every invoice, order for goods, or business letter issued by or on behalf of the company, or the receiver of the company, being a document on or in which the name of the company appears, shall contain a statement that a receiver has been appointed.

(3) If default is made in complying with the requirements of this section, the company, and every director, manager, managing agent, secretary or other officer of the company, and every receiver, who knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits the default, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding two hundred rupees.

120. (1) The Court, on being satisfied that the omission to register a mortgage or charge within the time required by section 109, or that the omission or misstatement of any particular with respect to any such mortgage or charge, or the omission to give intimation to the Registrar of the payment or satisfaction of a debt for which a charge or mortgage was created, was accidental or due to inadvertence or to some other sufficient cause, or is not of a nature to prejudice the position of creditors or share-holders of the company, or that on other grounds it is just and equitable to grant relief, may, on the application of the company or any person interested and on such terms and conditions as seem to the Court just and expedient, order that the time for registration be extended, or, as the case may be, that the omission or misstatement be rectified, and may make such order as to the costs of the application as it thinks fit.

(2) Where the Court extends the time for the registration of a mortgage or charge, the order shall not prejudice any rights acquired in respect of the property concerned prior to the time when the mortgage or charge is actually registered.

121. (1) It shall be the duty of the company to give intimation to the Registrar of the payment or satisfaction of any charge or mortgage created by the company and requiring registration under section

109 within twenty-one days from the date of the payment or satisfaction thereof.

(2) The Registrar shall on receipt of such intimation cause a notice to be sent to the mortgage calling upon him to show cause, within a time (not exceeding fourteen days) to be fixed by such notice, why the payment or satisfaction of the charge or mortgage should not be recorded.

(3) The Registrar shall, if no cause is shown, order that a memorandum of satisfaction be entered on the register and shall if required furnish the company with a copy thereof.

(4) Where cause is shown, the Registrar shall record a not to that effect in the register, and shall inform the company that he has done so.

122. (1) If any company makes default in filing with the Registrar for registration the particulars –

(a) of any mortgage or charge created by the company; or

(b) of the payment or satisfaction of a debt in respect of which a mortgage or charge has been registered under section 109 or section 109A; or

(c) of the issues of debentures of a series, requiring registration with the Registrar under the foregoing provisions of this Act, then, unless the

registration has been effected on the application of some other person, the company, and every officer of the company or other person who is knowingly a party to the default, shall no conviction be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred rupees for every day during which he default continues.

(2) Subject as aforesaid, if any company makes default in complying with any of the requirement of this Act as to the registration with the Registrar of any mortgage or charge created by the company, the company, and every officer of the company who knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits the default, shall, without prejudice to any other liability, be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding one thousand rupees.

(3) If any person knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits the delivery of any debenture or certificate of debenture stock requiring registration with the Registrar under the foregoing provisions of this Act without a copy of the certificate of registration being endorsed upon it, he shall, without prejudice to any other liability, be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding one thousand rupees.

123. (1) Every company shall keep a register of mortgages and enter therein all mortgages and charges specifically affecting property of the company and all floating charges on the undertaking or on any property of the company, giving in each case a short description of the property mortgaged or charged, the amount of the mortgage or charge and (except in the case of securities to bearer) the names of the mortgagees or persons entitled thereto.

(2) If any director, manager or other officer of the company knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits the omission of any entry required to be made in pursuance of this section, he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred rupees.

124. (1) The copies kept at the registered office of the company in pursuance of section 117 of instruments creating any mortgage or charge requiring registration under this Act with the Registrar, and the register of mortgages kept in pursuance of section 123, shall be open at all reasonable times to the inspection of any creditor or member of the company without fee, and the register of mortgages shall also be open to the inspection of any other person on payment of such fee, not exceeding one rupee for each inspection, as the company may prescribe.

(2) If inspection of the said copies or register is refused, the company shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees, and a further fine not exceeding twenty rupees for every day during which the refusal continues, and every officer of the company who knowingly authorizes or permits the refusal shall incur the like penalty, and in addition to the above penalty, the Court may by order compel an immediate inspection of the copies or register.

125. (1) Every register of holders of debentures of a company shall, except when closed in accordance with the articles during such period or periods (not exceeding in the whole thirty days in any year) as may be specified in the articles, be open to the inspection of the registered holder of any such debentures, and of any holder of shares in the company, but subject to such reasonable restrictions as the company may in general meeting impose, so that at least two hours in each day are appointed for inspection, and every such holder may require a copy of the register or any part thereof on payment of six annas for every one hundred words or fractional part thereof required to be copied.

(2) A copy of any trust-deed for securing any issue of debentures shall be forwarded to every holder of any such debentures at his request on payment, in the case of a printed trust-deed, of the sum of one rupee or such less sum as may be prescribed by the company, or, where the trust-deed has not been printed, on payment of six annas for every one hundred words or fractional part thereof required tobe copied.

(3) If inspection is refused, or a copy is refused or not forwarded, the company shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees, and to a further fine not exceeding twenty rupees for every day during which the refusal continues, and every officer of the company who knowingly authorizes or permits the refusal incur the like penalty, and the Court may by order compel an immediate inspection of the register.

125A. The separation of Burma and India shall not, as respects a company which was under the provisions of this Act as in force before the separation of Burma and India a company within the meaning of this Act, render valid any mortgage or charge which, by virtue of this Part of this Act, as in force immediately before the said date, was void against the liquidator and creditors of the company.

 

Debentures and Floating Charges.

126. A condition contained in any debentures or in any deed for securing any debentures, whether issued for executed before or after the passing of this Act, shall not be invalid by reason only that thereby the debentures are made irredeemable or redeemable only on the happening of a contingency, however remote or on the expiration of a period however long.

127. (1) Where either before or after the commencement of this Act a company has redeemed any debentures previous issued, the company, unless the articles or the conditions of issue expressly otherwise provide, or unless the debentures have been redeemed in pursuance of any obligation on the company so to do (not being an obligation enforceable only by the person to whom the redeemed debentures were issued or his assigns), shall have power, and shall be deemed always to have had power, to keep the debentures alive for the purposes of re-issue, and where a company has purported to exercise such a power the company shall have power, and shall be deemed always to have had power, to re-issue the debentures either by re-issuing the same debentures or by issuing other debentures in their place, and upon such re-issue the person entitled to the debentures shall have, and shall be deemed always to have had, the same rights and priorities as if the debentures had not previously been issued.

(2) Where with the object of keeping debentures alive for the purpose of re-issue they have, either before or after the commencement of this Act, been transferred to a nominee of the company, a transfer from that nominee shall be deemed to be a re-issue for the purposes of this section.

(3) Where a company has, either before or after the commencement of this Act, deposited any of its debentures to secure advances from time to time on current account or otherwise, the debentures shall not be deemed to have been redeemed by reason only of the account of the company having ceased to be in debit whilst the debentures remained so deposited.

(4) The re-issue of a debenture or the issue of another debenture in its place under the power by this section given to, or deemed to have been possessed by, a company, whether the re-issue or issue was made before or after the commencement of this Act, shall be treated as the issue of a new debenture for the purposes of stamp-duty, but it shall not be so treated for the purposes of any provision limiting the amount or number of debentures to be issued:

Provided that any person lending money on the security of a debenture re-issued under this section which appears to be duly stamped may give the debenture in evidence in any proceedings for enforcing his security without payment of the stamp-duty or any penalty in respect thereof, unless he had notice or, but for his negligence, might have discovered that the debenture was not duly stamped, but in any such case the company shall be liable to pay the proper stamp-duty and penalty.

(5) Nothing in this section shall prejudice –

(a) * * * *

(b) any power to issue debentures in the place of any debentures paid off or otherwise satisfied or extinguished, reserved to a company by its debentures or the securities for the same.

128. A contract with a company to take up and pay for any debentures of the company may be enforced by a decree for specific performance.

129. (1) Where either a receiver is appointed on behalf of the holders of any debentures of a company secured by a floating charge, or possession is taken by or on behalf of those denture-holders of any property comprised in or subject to the charge, then, if the company is not at the time in course of being wound up, the debts which in every winding up are under the provisions of Part V relating to preferential payments to be paid in priority to all other debts, shall be paid forthwith out of any assets coming to the hands of the receiver or other person taking possession as aforesaid in priority to any claim for principal or interest in respect of the debentures.

(2) The periods of time mentioned in the said provisions of Part V shall be reckoned from the date of the appointment of the receiver or of possession being taken as aforesaid, as the case may be.

(3) Any payments made under this section shall be recouped, as far as may be, out of the assets of the company available for payment of general creditors.

Statement, Books and Accounts.

130. (1) Every company shall cause to be maintained proper books of account in Burmese or English]* with respect to –

(a) all sums of money received and expended by the company and the matters in respect of which the receipt and expenditure takes place;

(b) all sales and purchases of goods by the company;

(c) the assets and liabilities of the company.

(2) The books of account shall be kept at the registered office of the company or at such other place as the directors think fit, and shall be open to inspection by the directors during business hours.

(3) In the case of a company managed by a managing agent the managing agent, or where the managing agent is a firm or company, the partner or director of such firm or company, and in any other case the director or directors, who have knowingly by their act or omission been the cause of any default by the company in complying with the requirements of this section, shall in respect of suchoffence be liable to a fine not exceeding one thousand rupees.

131. (1) The directors of every company shall at some date not later than eighteen months after the incorporation of the company, and subsequently once at least in every calendar year, lay before the company in general Meeting a balance-sheet and profit and loss account, or in the case of a company not trading for profit an income and expenditure account for the period, in the case of the first account since the incorporation of the company, and in any other case since the preceding account, made up to a date not earlier than the date of the meeting by more than nine months, or in the case of a company carrying on business or having interests outside the Union of Burma by more than twelve months:


*Substituted by Act XXIII, 1955


Provided that the Registrar may for any special reason extend the period by a period not exceeding three months.

(2) The balance-sheet and the profit and loss account, or income and expenditure account, shall be audited by the auditor of the company as hereinafter provided, and the auditor’s report shall be attached thereof, or there shall be inserted at the foot thereof a reference to the report, and the report shall be read before the company in general meeting and shall be open to inspection by any member of the company.

(3) Every company other than a private company shall send a copy of such balance-sheet and profit and loss account, or income and expenditure account, so audited, together with a copy of the auditor’s report, to the registered address of every member of the company at least fourteen days before the meeting at which it is to be laid before the members of the company, and shall deposit a copy at the registered office of the company for the inspection of the members of the company during a period of at least fourteen days before that meeting.

131A. (1) The directors shall make out and attach to every balance-sheet a report with respect to the state of the company’s affairs, the amount, if any, which they recommend should be paid by way of dividend, and the amount, if any, which they propose to carry to the Reserve Fund, General Reserve or Reserve Fund, General Reserve or Reserve Account to be shown specifically in a subsequent balancesheet.

(2) The report referred to in sub-section (1) may be signed by the chairman of the directors on behalf of the directors if authorized in that behalf by the directors.

(3) The provisions of sub-section (3) of section 130 shall apply to any person being a director who is knowingly and willfully guilty of a default in complying with this section.

132. (1) The balance-sheet shall contain a summary of the property and assets and of the capital and liabilities of the company, giving such particulars as will disclose the general nature of those liabilities and assets and how the value of the fixed assets has been arrived at.

(2) The balance-sheet shall be in the form marked F in the Third Schedule, or as near thereto as circumstances admit.

(3) The profit and loss account shall include particulars showing the total of the amount paid, whether as fees, percentages or otherwise, to the managing agent, if any, and the directors, respectively, as remuneration for their services, and, where a special resolution passed by the members of the company so requires, to the manager, and the total of the amount written off for depreciation. If any director of the company is by virtue of the nomination, whether direct or indirect, of the company, a director of any other company, any remuneration or other emoluments received by him for his own use, whether as a director of, or otherwise in connection with the management of, that other company, shall be shown in a note at the foot of the account or in a statement attached thereto.

132A. (1) Where a company, in this Act referred to as the holding company, holds shares, either directly or through a nominee, in a subsidiary company or in two or more subsidiary companies, there shall be annexed to the balance-sheet of the holding company the last audited balance-sheet, profit and loss account and auditors’ report of the subsidiary company or companies, and a statement signed by the persons by whom, in pursuance of section 133, the balance-sheet of the holding company is signed, stating how the profits and losses of the subsidiary company, or, where there are two or more subsidiary companies, the aggregate profits and losses of those companies, have been dealt with in or for the purposes of the accounts of the holding company, and in particular how and to what extent –

(a) provision has been made for the losses of a subsidiary company either in the accounts of that company or of the holding company or of both, and

(b) losses of a subsidiary company have been taken into account by the directors of the holding company in arriving at the profits and losses of the company as disclosed in its accounts:

Provided that it shall not be necessary to specify in any such statement the actual amount of the profits or losses of any subsidiary company or the actual amount of any part of any such profits or losses which has been dealt with in any particular manner:

Provided further that for the purposes of this section an investment company, that is to say, a company whose principal business is the acquisition and holding of shares, stocks, debentures or other securities, shall not be deemed to be a holding company by reason only that part of its assets consists in 51 per cent. or more of the shares of another company.

(2) If, in the case of a subsidiary company, the auditors’ report on the balance-sheet of the company does not state without qualification that the auditors have obtained all the information and explanations they have required and that the balance-sheet is properly drawn up so as to exhibit a true and correct view of the state of the company’s affairs according to the best of their information and the explanations given to them and as shown by the books of the company, the statement, which is to be annexed as aforesaid to the balance-sheet of the holding company, shall contain particulars of the manner in which the report is qualified.

(3) For, the purposes of this section the profits or losses of a subsidiary company mean the profits or losses shown in any accounts of the subsidiary company made up to a date within the period to which the accounts of the holding company relate, or, if there are no such accounts of the subsidiary company available at the time when the accounts of the holding company are made up, the profits or losses shown in the last previous accounts of the subsidiary company which became available within that period.

(4) If for any reason the directors of the holding company are unable to obtain such information as is necessary for the preparation of the statement aforesaid, the directors who sign the balance- sheet shall so report in writing and their report shall be annexed to the balance-sheet in lieu of the statement.

(5) The holding company may by a resolution authorize representatives named in the resolution to inspect the books of account kept in accordance with section 130 by any subsidiary company, and on such resolution being passed those books of account shall be open to inspection by those representatives at any time during business hours.

(6) The rights conferred by section 138 upon members of a company may be exercised in respect of any subsidiary company by members of the holding company as if they were members of that subsidiary company.

133. (1) Save as provided by sub-section (2), the balance-sheet and profit and loss account, or income and expenditure account, shall –

(i) in the case of a banking company, be signed by the manager or managing agent (if any) and, where there are more than three directors of the company, by at least three of those directors and, where there are not more than three directors, by all the directors;

(ii) in the case of any other company, be signed by two directors or, when there are less than two directors, by the sole director and by the manager or managing agent (if any) of the company.

(2) When the total number of directors of the company for the time being in the Union of Burma is less than the number of directors whose signatures are required by sub-section (1), then the balancesheet and profit and loss account, or income and expenditure account, shall be signed by all the directors for the time being in the Union of Burma, by such director, but in such a case there shall be subjoined to the balance-sheet and profit and loss account, or income and expenditure account, a statement signed by such directors or director explaining the reason for non-compliance with the provisions of subsection(1).

(3) If any default is made in laying before the company or in issuing a balance-sheet and profit and loss account, or income and expenditure account, as required by section 131, or if any balance-sheet and profit and loss account, or income and expenditure account, is issued, circulated or published which does not comply with the requirements laid down by and under section 131, section 132, section 132A and this section, the company and every officer of the company who is knowingly and willfully a party to the default shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees.

134. (1) After the balance-sheet and profit and loss account have been laid before the company at the general meeting, a copy of the balance-sheet, signed by the manager or secretary of the company, shall be filed with the Registrar at the same time as the copy of the annual list of members and summary prepared in accordance with the requirements of section 32.

(2) If the general meeting before which a balance-sheet is laid does not adopt the balance-sheet, a statement of that fact and of the reasons therefor shall be annexed to the balance-sheet and to the copy thereof required to be filed with the Registrar.

(3) This section shall not apply to a private company.

(4) If a company makes default in complying with the requirements of this section, the compan and every officer of the company who knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits the default shall be liable to the like penalty as is provided by section 32 for a default in complying with the provisions of that section.

135. Save as otherwise provided in this Act, any member of a company shall be entitled to be furnished with copies of the balance-sheet and the profit and loss account, or the income and expenditure account, and the auditor’s report at a charge not exceeding six annas for every hundred words or fractional part thereof.

Statement to be published by Banking and certain other Companies.

136. (1) Every company being a limited banking company or an insurance company or a deposit, provident or benefit society shall, before it commences business, and also on the first Monday in February and the first Monday in August in every year during which it carries on business, make a statement in the form marked G in the Third Schedule, or as near thereto as circumstances will admit.

(2) A copy of the statement, together with a copy of the last audited balance-sheet laid before the members of the company, kept displayed in a conspicuous place in the registered office of the company, and in every branch office or place where the business of the company is carried on.

(3) Every member and every creditor of the company shall be entitled to a copy of the statement on payment of a sum not exceeding eight annas.

(4) If a company makes default in complying with the requirements of this section, it shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day during which the default continues; and every officer of the company who knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits the default shall be liable to the likepenalty.

(5) This section shall not apply to a life assurance company or provident insurance society to which the provisions of the Life Assurance Companies Act or of the Provident Insurance Societies Act, as the case may be, as to the annual statements to be made by such company or society, apply with or without modification, if the company or society complies with those provisions.

Investigation by the Registrar.

137. (1) Where the Registrar, on perusal of any document which a company is required to submit to him under the provisions of this Act, is of opinion that any information or explanation is necessary in order that such document may afford full particulars of the matter to which it purports to relate, he may, by a written order, call on the company submitting the document to furnish in writing such information or explanation within such time as he may specify in his order.

(2) On the receipt of an order under sub-section (1), it shall be the duty of all persons who are or have been officers of the company to furnish such information or explanation to the best of their power.

(3) If any such person refuses or neglects to furnish any such information or explanation, he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees in respect of each offence, and the Court may on the application of the Registrar and upon notice to the company make an order on the company for production of such documents as in its opinion may reasonably be required by the Registrar for his investigation and allow the Registrar inspection thereof on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit.

(4) On receipt of such information or explanation the Registrar may annex the same to the original document submitted to him; and any additional document so annexed by the Registrar shall be subjec to the like provisions as to inspection and the taking of copies as the original document is subject.

(5) If such information or explanation is not furnished within the specified time, or if after perusal of such information or explanation the Registrar is of opinion that the document in question discloses an unsatisfactory state of affairs, or that it does not disclose a full and fair statement of the matters to which it purports to relate, the Registrar shall report in writing the circumstances of the case to the President of the Union.

(6) If it is represented to the Registrar in materials placed before him by any contributory or creditor that the business of a company is carried on in fraud of its creditor that the business of a company is carried on in fraud of its creditors or in fraud of persons dealing with the company or for a fraudulent purpose, he may after giving the company an opportunity of being heard by written order call on the company for information or explanation on matters specified in the order within such time as he may specify in the order, and the provisions of sub-sections (2), (3) and (5) of this section shall apply to such order. If upon investigation the Registrar is satisfied that nay representation on which he has taken action under this sub-section is frivolous or vexatious, he shall disclose the identity of the informant to the company.

(7) The provisions of this section shall apply mutatis mutandis to documents which a liquidator is required to file under this Act.

Inspection and Audit.

138. The President of the Union may appoint one or more competent inspectors to investigate the affairs of any company and to report thereon in such manner as the President of the Union may direct __

(i) in the case of a banking company having a share capital, on the application of members holding not less than one-fifth of the shares issued;

(ii) in the case of any other company having a share capital, on the application of members holding not less than one-tenth of there shares issued;

(iii) in the case of a company not having a share capital, on the application of not that one-fifth in number of the persons on the company’s register of members;

(iv) in the case of any company, on a report by the Registrar under section 137, sub-section (5).

* 138A. The President of the Union may, at any time, in the interest of the public, direct the investigation of the affairs of a company, foreign company carrying on international trade by one or more competent inspectors appointed in this behalf.

139. An application by members of a company under section 138 shall be supported by such evidence as the President of the Union may require for the purpose of showing that the applicants have good reason for, and are not actuated by malicious motives in requiring, the investigation; and the President of the Union may, before appointing an inspector, require the applicants to give security for payment of the costs of the inquiry.

140. (1) It shall be the duty of all persons who are or have been officers of the company to produce to the inspectors all books and documents in their custody or power relating to the company.

(2) An inspector may examine on oath any such person in relation to its business, and may administer an oath accordingly.

(3) If any person refuses to produce any book or document which under this section it is his duty to produce, or to answer any question relating to the affairs of the company, he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees in respect of each offence.

141. (1) On the conclusion of the investigation the inspectors shall report their opinion to the President of the Union, and a copy of the report shall be forwarded by the President of the Union to the Registrar and another copy to the registered office of the company, and a further copy shall, at the request of the applicants for the investigation, be delivered to them.

(2) The report shall be written or printed, as the President of the Union directs.

(3) All expenses of, and incidental to, the investigation shall be defrayed by the applicants unless the President of the Union directs the name to be paid by the company, which the President of the Union is hereby authorized to do:

 


* Inserted by Act XXIII, 1955


 

Provided that the expenses of and incidental to an investigation held in pursuance of clause (iv) of section 138 shall be paid out of the assets of the company and shall be recoverable as an arrear of landrevenue.

(4) The Registrar shall keep the copy of the report sent to him with the records of the company in his custody.

141A. (1) If from any report made under section 138 it appears to the President of the Union that any person has been guilty of any offence in relation to the company for which he is criminally liable, the President of the Union shall refer the matter to the Attorney-General* or the Public Prosecutor.

(2) If the officer to whom the matte is referred considers that the case is one in which a prosecution ought to be instituted, he shall cause proceedings to be instituted, and it shall be the duty of all officers and agents of the company, past and present (other than the accused in the proceedings), to give to him all assistance in connection with the prosecution which they are reasonably able to give.

(3) For the purpose of sub-section (2), the expression “agents” in relation to a company shall be deemed to include the bankers and legal advisers of the company and any persons employed by the company as auditors, whether those persons are or are not officers of the company.

(4) Any director, manager or other officer of the company convicted as the result of a prosecution initiated under this section shall not without the leave of the Court be a director of or in any way, whether directly or indirectly, be concerned in or take part in the management of a company for a period of five years from the date of such conviction.

142. (1) A company may by a special resolution appoint inspectors to investigate its affairs.

(2) Inspectors so appointed shall have the same powers and duties as inspectors appointed by the President of the Union, except that, instead of reporting to the President of the Union, they shall report in such manner and to such persons as the company in general meeting may direct.

(3) All persons who are or have been officers of the company shall incur the like penalties in case of refusal to produce any book or document required to be produced to inspectors so appointed, or to answer any question, as they would have incurred if the inspectors had been appointed by the President of the Union.

 


* Substituted by the Union of Burma (Adaptation of Laws) Order, 1948.


 

143. A copy of the report of any inspectors appointed under this Act, authenticated by the seal of the company whose affairs they have investigated, shall be admissible in any legal proceeding as evidence of the opinion of the inspectors in relation to any matter contained in the report.

144. (1) No person shall be appointed or act as an auditor of any company, other than a private company not being the subsidiary company of a public company, unless he holds a certificate from the President of the Union entitling him to act as an auditor of companies:

Provided that a firm whereof all the partners practicing in the Union of Burma hold such certificates may be appointed by its firm-name to be auditor of a company, and may act in its firm-name.

(2) The President of the Union may, by notification in the Gazette and after previous publication, make rules providing for the grant, renewal or cancellation of such certificates and prescribing conditions and restrictions for such grant, renewal or cancellation:

Provided that nothing contained in such rules shall preclude any person from being granted a certificate merely by reason that he does not practice as a public accountant.

(2A) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may __

(a) provide for the maintenance of a register of Accountants entitled to apply for such certificates;

(b) prescribe the qualifications for enrolment on the register and the fees therefor;

(c) provide for the examination of candidates for enrolment, and prescribe the fees to be paid by examinees;

(d) prescribe the circumstances in which the name of any person may be removed from or restored to the register;

(e) provide for the establishment, constitution and procedure of an Accountancy Board, consisting of persons representing the interests principally affected or having special knowledge of accountancy, to advise him on all matters of administration relating to accountancy, and to assist him in maintain the standards of qualification and conduct of persons enrolled on the register; and

(f) provide for the establishment, constitution and procedure of local accountancy boards at such centres as the President of the Union may select, to advise him and the Accountancy Board on any matter that may be referred to them.

(2A) The holder of a certificate granted under this section shall be entitled to be appointed and act as an auditor of companies throughout the Union of Burma.

(3) Every company shall at each annual general meeting appoint an auditor or auditors to hold office until the next annual general meeting.

(4) If an appointment of an auditor is not made at an annual general meeting, the President of the Union may, on the application of any member of the company, appoint an auditor of the company for the current year, and fix the remuneration to be paid to him by the company for his services.

(5) The following persons, that is to say __

(i) a director or officer of the company, and

(ii) a partner of such director or officer, and

(iii)in the case of a company, other than a private company not being the subsidiary company of a public company any person in the employment of such director or officer, and

(iv) any person indebted to the company, shall not be appointed auditors of the company, and if any person after being appointed auditor becomes indebted to the company his appointment shall thereupon be terminated.

(6) A person, other than a retiring auditor, shall not be capable of being appointed auditor at an annual general meeting unless notice of an intention to nominate that person to the office of auditor has been given by a member of the company to the company not less than fourteen days before such annual general meeting, and the company shall send a copy of any such notice to the retiring auditor, and shall give notice thereof to its members, either by advertisement or in any other mode allowed by the articles, not less than seven days before the annual general meeting:

Provided that, if after notice of the intention to nominate an auditor has been given to the company, an annual general meeting is called for a date fourteen days or less after the notice has been given, the requirements of this section as to time in respect of such a notice shall be deemed to have been satisfied, and the notice to be sent or given by the company may, instead of being sent or given within the time required by this section, be sent or given at the same time as the notice of the annual general meeting.

(7) The first auditors of the company may be appointed by the directors before the statutory meeting, and if so appointed shall hold office until the first annual general meeting unless previously removed by a resolution of the members of the company in general meeting, in which case such members at that meeting may appoint auditors.

(8) The directors may fill any casual vacancy in the office of auditor, but while any such vacancy continues the surviving or continuing auditor or auditors (if any) may act.

(9) The remuneration of the auditors of a company shall be fixed by the company in general meeting, except that the remuneration of any auditors appointed before the statutory meeting, or to fill any casual vacancy, may be fixed by the directors.

145. (1) Every auditor of a company shall have a right of access at all time to the books and accounts and vouchers of the company, and shall be entitled to require from the directors and officers of the company such information and explanation as may be necessary for the performance of the duties of the auditors.

(2) The auditors shall make a report to the members of the company on the accounts examined by them, and on every balance-sheet and profit and loss account laid before the company in general meeting during their tenure of office, and the report shall state: __

(a) whether or not they have obtained all the information and explanations they have required; and

(b) whether or not in their opinion the balance-sheet and the profit and loss account referred to in the report are drawn up in conformity with the law; and

(c) whether or not such balance-sheet exhibits a true and correct view of the state of the company’s affairs according to the best of their information and the explanations given to them, and as shown by the books of the company; and

(d) whether in their opinion books of account have been kept by the company as required by section

130.

(2A) Where any of the matters referred to in clauses (a), (b), (c) and (d) of sub-section (2) is answered in the negative or with a qualification, the report shall state the reason for such answer.

(3) In the case of a banking company, if the company has branch banks beyond the limits of the Union of Burma, it shall be sufficient if the auditor is allowed access to such copies of and extracts-from the books and accounts of any such branch as have been transmitted to the head office of the company in the Union of Burma.

(4) The auditors of a company shall be entitled to receive notice of and to attend any general meeting of the company at which any accounts which have been examined or reported on by them are to be laid before the company and may make any statement or explanation they desire with respect to the accounts.

(5) If any auditors’ report is made which does not comply with the requirements of this section, every auditor who is knowingly and willfully a party to the default shall be punishable with fine which may extend to one hundred rupees.

*145A. (1) In the case of a company in which Government holds any share the following provisions shall apply notwithstanding anything contained in sections 131, 144 and 145.

Explanation. __ “Government” includes State Government.

(2) The auditor of a company in which Government holds any share shall be appointed or reappointed by the President of the Union on the advice of the Auditor-General.

(3) The Auditor-General shall have power __

(a) to direct the manner in which the company’s accounts be audited by the auditor appointed in pursuance of sub-section (2) and to give such auditor instructions in regard to any matter relating to the performance of his functions as such;

(b) to conduct a supplementary or test audit of the company’s accounts by such person or persons as he may authorize in this behalf; and for the purpose of such audit, to require information or additional information to be furnished to any person or persons, and in such form, as the matters, by such person or persons, and in such form, as the Auditor-General may, by general or special order, direct;

(c) to require the company to produce before him such records or documents in its possession or under its control for the purposes of audit or supplementary or test audit of the company’s account and at such time as may be specified by him.

(4) Any order requiring any information, records or documents to be furnished or produced by a company may also be addressed to any person who is, or has at any time been, an officer or employee of the company, and all the provisions of this section, so far as may be, shall apply in relation to such person as they apply in relation to the company.

(5) The auditor aforesaid shall submit a copy of his audit report to the Auditor-General who shall have the right to comment upon, or supplement, the audit report in such manner as he may think fit.

*145B. Anything which under section 145A is required to be done by the Auditor-General may be done by any person authorized by him, either generally or specially.

145C. If a company in which Government holds any share fails to comply with an order made under section 145A, the company and every officer or employee thereof who is in default shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to two years or with fine which may extend to ten thousand kyats, or with both.

 


* Inserted by Act XLVIII, 1959.


 

145. (1) Holders of preference shares and debentures of a company shall have the same right to receive and inspect the balance-sheets and profit and loss accounts of the company and the reports of the auditors and other reports as is possessed by the holders of ordinary shares in the company.

(2) This section shall not apply to a private company, nor to a company registered before the commencement of this Act:

Provided that in the case of any public company whether registered before or after the commencement of this Act the trustees for holders of debentures shall have the right conferred by subsection (1) on holders of preference shares and debentures of a company. Carrying on Business with less than the Legal Minimum of Members.

147. If at any time the number of members of a company is reduced, in the case of a private company, below two, or in the case of any other company, below seven, and it carries on business for more than six months while the number is so reduced, every person who is a member of the company during the time that it so carries on business after those six months and is cognizant of the fact that it is carrying on business with fewer than two members or seven members, as the case may be, shall be severally liable for the payment of the whole debts of the company contracted during that time, and may be used for the same without joinder in the suit of any other member.

Service and Authentication of Documents.

148. A document may be served on a company by leaving it at, or sending it by post to, the registered office of the company.

149. A document may be served on the Registrar by sending it to him by post, or delivering it to him, or by leaving if for him at his office.

150. A document or proceeding requiring authentication by a company may be signed by a director, secretary or other authorized officer of the company, and need not be under its common seal.

Tables, Forms and Rules as to Prescribed Matters

151. (1) The forms in the Third Schedule or forms as near thereto as circumstances admit shall be used in all matters to which those forms refer.

(2) The President of the Union may alter any of the Tables and forms in the First Schedule, so that he does not increase the amount of fees payable to the Registrar in the said Schedule mentioned, and may alter or add to the forms in the Third Schedule.

(3) Any such Table or form, when altered, shall be published in the Gazette, and on such publication shall have effect as if enacted in this Act, but no alteration made by the President of the Union in Table A in the First Schedule shall affect any company registered before the alteration, or repeal, as respects that company, any portion of that Table.

(4) In addition to the powers hereinbefore conferred by this section, the President of the Union may make rules providing for all or any matters which by this Act are to be prescribed by his authority.

(5) Every such rule shall be published in the Gazette, and on such publication shall have effect as if enacted in this Act.

Arbitration and Compromises.

152. (1) A company may by written agreement refer to arbitration, in accordance with the Arbitration Act, an existing or future difference between itself and any other company or person.

(2) Companies, parties to the arbitration, may delegate to the arbitrator power to settle any terms or to determine any matter capable of being lawfully settled or determined by the companies themselves, or by their directors or other managing body.

(3) The provisions of the Arbitration Act [ * * ]* shall apply to all arbitration between companies and persons in pursuance of this Act.

153. (1) Where a compromise or arrangement is proposed between a company and its creditors or any class of them, or between the company and its members or any class of them, the Court may, on the application in a summary way of the company or of any creditor or member of the company or, in the case of a company being wound up, of the liquidator, order a meeting of the creditors or class ofcreditors or of the company or class of members, as the case may be, to be called, held and conducted in such manner as the Court directs.

 


* Deleted by Act IV, 1944.


 

(2) If a majority in number representing there-fourths in value of the creditors or class of creditors, or members or class of members, as the case may be, present either in person or by proxy at the meeting, agree to any compromise or arrangement, the compromise or arrangement shall, if sanctioned by the Court, be binding on all the creditors or the class or creditors, or on all the members or class of a company in the course of being wound up, on the liquidator and contributories of the company.

(3) An order made under sub-section (2) shall have no effect until a certified copy of the order has been filed with the Registrar, and a copy of every such order shall be annexed to every copy of the memorandum of the company issued after the order has been made, or in the case of a company not having a memorandum, of every copy so issued of the instrument constituting or defining the constitution of the company.

(4) If a company makes default in complying with sub-section (3) the company and every officer of the company who is knowingly and willfully in default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding ten rupees for each copy in respect of which default is made.

(5) The Court may, at any time after an application has been made to it under this section, stay the commencement or continuation of any suit or proceeding against a company on such terms as it thinks fit and proper until the application is finally disposed of.

(6) In this section the expression “company” means any company liable to be wound up under this

Act, and for the purposes of this section unsecured creditors who may have filed suits or obtained

decrees shall be deemed to be of the same class as other unsecured creditors.

(7) An appeal shall lie from any order made by the Court exercising original jurisdiction under this section to the authority authorized to hear appeals from the decisions of the Court.

153A. (1) Where an application is made to the Court under section 153 for the sanctioning of a compromise or arrangement proposed between a company and any such persons as are mentioned in that section, and it is shown to the Court that the compromise or arrangement has been proposed for the purposes of or in connection with a scheme for the reconstruction of any company or companies or the amalgamation of any two or more companies, and that under the scheme the whole or any part of the undertaking or the property of any company concerned in the scheme (in this section referred to as a “transferor company”) is to be transferred to another company (in this section referred to as “the transferee company”), the Court may, either by the order sanctioning the compromise or arrangement or by any subsequent order, make provision for all or any of the following matters: __

(a) the transfer to the transferee company of the whole or any part of the undertaking and of the property or liabilities of any transferor company;

(b) the allotting or appropriation by the transferee company of any shares, debentures, policies, or other like interests in that company which under the compromise or arrangement are to be allotted or appropriated by that company to or for any person;

(c) the continuation by or against the transferee company of any legal proceedings pending by or against any transferor company;

(d) the dissolution, without winding up, of any transferor company;

(e) the provision to be made for any persons who, within such time and in such manner as the Court directs, dissent from the compromise or arrangement;

(f) such incidental, consequential and supplemental matters as are necessary to secure that the reconstruction or amalgamation shall be fully and effectively carried out.

(2) Where an order under this section provides for the transfer of property or liabilities, that property shall, by virtue of the order, be transferred to and vest in, and those liabilities shall, by virtue of the order, be transferred to and become the liabilities of, the transferee company, and in the case of any property, if the order so directs, freed from any charges which is by virtue of the compromise or arrangement to cease to have effect.

(3) When an order is made under this section, every company in relation to which the order is made shall cause a certified copy thereof to be delivered to the Registrar for registration within fourteen days after the completion of the order, and if default is made in complying with this sub-section, the company and every officer of the company who is knowingly and willfully in default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees.

(4) In this section the expression “property” includes property rights and powers of every description, and the expression “liabilities” includes duties.

(5) Notwithstanding the provisions of sub-section (4) of section 153, the expression “company” in this section does not include any company other than a company within the meaning of this Act.

153B. (1) Where a scheme or contract involving the transfer of shares or any class of shares in a company (in this section referred to as “the transferor company”) to another company, whether a company within the meaning of this Act or not (in this section referred to as the “transferee company”), has within four months after the making of the offer in that behalf by the transferee company been approved by the holders of not less than three-fourths in value of the shares affected, the transferee company may, at any time within two months after the expiration of the said four months, give notice in the prescribed manner to any dissenting shareholder that is desires to acquire his shares, and where such a notice is given the transferee company shall, unless on an application made by the dissenting shareholder within one month from the date on which the notice was given the Court thinks fit to order otherwise, be entitled and bound to acquire those shares on the terms on which under the scheme or contract the shares of the approving share-holders are to be transferred to the transferee company:

Provide that, where may such scheme or contract has been so approved at any time before the 15th January, 1937,* the Court may by order, on an application made to it by the transferee company within two months after the said date, authorize notice to be given under this section at any time within fourteen days after the making of the order, and this section shall apply accordingly, except that the terms on which the shares of the dissenting shareholder are to be acquired shall be such terms as the Court may by the order direct instead of the terms provided by the scheme or contract.

(2) Where a notice has been given by the transferee company under this section and the Court has not, on an application made by the dissenting shareholder, ordered to the contrary, the transferee company shall, on the expiration of one month from the date on which the notice has been given or, if an application to the Court by the dissenting shareholder is then pending, after that application has been disposed of, transmit a copy of the notice to the transferor company and pay or transfer to the transferor company the amount or other consideration representing the price payable by the transferee company for the shares which by virtue of this section that company is entitled to acquire, and the transferor company shall thereupon register the transferee company as the holder of those shares.

(3) Any sums received by the transferor company under this section shall be paid into separate bank account, and any such sums and any other consideration so received shall be held by that company on trust for the several persons entitled to the shares in respect of which the said sums or other consideration were respect

 


* Date of commencement of the Indian Companies (Amendment) Act, 1936 (India Act XXII, 1936).


 

(4) In this section the expression “dissenting shareholder” includes a shareholder who has not assented to the scheme or contract and any shareholder who has failed or refused to transfer his shares to the transferee company in accordance with the scheme or contract.

Conversion of Private Company into Public Company.

154. (1) If a company, being a private company, alters its articles in such manner that they no longer include the provisions which, under the provisions of clause (13) of sub-section (1) of section 2, are required to be included in the articles of a company in order to constitute it a private company, the company shall, as on the date of the alteration, cease to be a private company and shall, within a period of fourteen days after the said date, file with the Registrar a prospectus or a statement in lieu of prospectus in the form and containing the particulars set out in the form marked II in the Second Schedule.

(2) If default is made in complying with sub-section (1) of this section, the company and every officer of the company who is knowingly and willfully in default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred rupees.

(3) Where the articles of a company include the provisions aforesaid but default is made in complying with any of those provisions, the company shall cease to be entitled to the privileges and exemptions conferred on private companies under the provisions contained in this Act, and thereupon the provisions of this Act shall apply to the company as if it were not a private company:

Provided that the Court, on being satisfied that the failure to comply with the conditions was accidental or due to inadvertence or to some other sufficient cause, or that on other grounds it is just and equitable to grant relief, may, on the application of the company or any other person interested and on such terms and conditions as seem to the Court just and expedient, order that the company be relieved from such consequences as aforesaid.

PART V.

WINDING UP.

Preliminary.

155. (1) The winding up of a company may be either __

(i) by the Court; or

(ii) voluntary; or

(iii)subject to the supervision of the Court

(2) The provisions of this Act with respect to winding up apply, unless the contrary appears, to the winding up of a company in any of these modes.

Contributories.

156. (1) In the event of a company being wound up, every present and past member shall, subject to the provision of this section, be liable to contribute to the assets of the company to an amount sufficient for payment of its debts and liabilities and the costs, charges and expenses of the winding up, and for the adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves, with the qualifications following (that is to say) :

(i) a past member shall not be liable to contribute if he has ceased to be a member for one year or upwards before the commencement of the winding up ;

(ii) a past member shall not be liable to contribute in respect of any debt, or liability of the company contracted after he ceased to be a member;

(iii) a past member shall not be liable to contribute unless it appears to the Court that the existing members are unable to satisfy the contributions required to be made by them in pursuance of this Act;

(iv) In the case of a company limited by shares, no contribution shall be required from any member exceeding the amount (if any) unpaid on the shares in respect to which he is liable as a present or past member;

(v) In the case of a company limited by guarantee, no contribution shall be required from any member exceeding the amount undertaken to be contributed by him to the assets of the company in the event of its being wound up;

(vi) Nothing in this Act shall invalidate any provision contained in any policy of insurance or other contract whereby the liability of individual members on the policy or contract is restricted, or whereby the funds of the company are alone made liable in respect of the policy or contract.

(vii) a sum due to any member of a company in his character of a member, by way of dividends, profits or otherwise, shall not be deemed to be a debt of the company payable to that member in a case of competition between himself and any other creditor not a member of the company; but any such sum may be taken into account for the purpose of the final adjustments of the rights of the contributories among themselves.

(2) In the winding up of a company limited by guarantee which has a share capital, every member of the company shall be liable, in addition to the amount undertaken to be contributed by him to the assets of the company in the event of its being wound up, to contribute to the extent of any sums unpaid on any shares held by him.

157. In the winding up of a limited company any director, whether past or present, whose liability is, in pursuance of this Act, unlimited, shall, in addition to his liability (if any) to contribute as an ordinary member, be liable to make a further contribution as if he were at the commencement of the winding up a member of an unlimited company:

Provided that __

(i) a past director shall not be liable to make such further contribution if he has ceased to hold office for a year or upwards before the commencement of the winding up ;

(ii) a past director shall not be liable to make such further contribution in respect of any debt or liability of the company contracted after he ceased to hold office.

(iii)Subject to the articles a director shall not be liable to make such further contribution unless the Court deems it necessary to require that contribution in order to satisfy the debts and liabilities of the company, and the costs, charges and expenses of the winding up.

158. The term “contributory” means every person liable to contribute to the assets of a company in the event of its being wound up, and, in all proceedings for determining and in all proceedings prior to the final determination of the persons who are to be deemed contributories, includes any person alleged to be a contributory.

159. (1) The liability Of a contributory shall create a debt payable at the time specified in the calls made on him by the liquidator.

(2) No claim founded on the liability of a contributory shall be cognized by any Court of Small Causes.

160. (1) If a contributory dies either before or after he has been placed on the list of contributories, his legal representatives and his heirs shall be liable in a due course of administration to contribute to the assets of the company in discharge of his liability and shall be contributories accordingly.

(2) If the legal representatives or heirs make default in paying any money ordered to be paid by them, proceedings may be taken for administering the property of the deceased contributory, whether moveable or immoveable, or both, and of compelling payment thereout of the money due.

(3) For the purposes of this section the surviving coparceners of a contributory who is member of a Hindu joint family governed by the Mitakshara School of Hindu Law shall be deemed to be his legal representatives and heirs.

161. If a contributory is adjudged insolvent either before or after he has been placed on the list of contributories, in then __

(1) his assignees shall represent him for all the purposes of the winding up, and shall be contributories accordingly, and may be called on to admit to proof against the estate of the insolvent, or otherwise to allow to be paid out of his assets in due course of law, any money due from the insolvent in respect of his liability to contribute to the assets of the company; and

(2) there may be proved against the estate of the insolvent the estimated value of his liability to future calls as well as calls already made.

Winding up by Court.

162. A company may be wound up by the Court __

(i) if the company has by special resolution resolved that the company be wound up by the Court;

(ii) if default is made in filing the statutory report or in holding the statutory meeting;

(iii)if the company does not commence its business within a year from its incorporation, or suspends its business for a whole year;

(iv) if the number of members is reduced, in the case of a private company, below two; or, in the case of any other company, below seven;

(v) if the company is unable to pay its debts;

(va) if its licence is withdrawn in accordance with the provisions of section 55 of the Union Bank of Burma Act, 1952;

(vi) if the Court is of opinion that it is just and equitable that the company should be wound up.

 


* Inserted by Act IX, 1952.


 

163. (1) A company shall be deemed to be unable to pay its debts __

(i) if a creditor, by assignment or otherwise, to whom the company is indebted in a sumexceeding five hundred rupees then due, has served on the company, by causing the same to be delivered by registered post or otherwise at its registered office, a demand under his hand requiring the company to pay the sum so due and the company has for three weeks thereafter neglected to pay the sum, or to secure or compound for it to the reasonable satisfaction of the creditor; or

(ii) if execution or other process issued on a decree or order of any Court in favour of a creditor of the company is returned unsatisfied in whole or in part; or

(iii) if it is proved to the satisfaction of the Court that the company is unable to pay its debts and, in determining whether a company is unable to pay its debts, the Court shall take into account the contingent and prospective liabilities of the company.

(2) The demand referred to in clause (i) of sub-section (1) shall be deemed to have been duly given under the hand of the creditor if it is signed by an agent or legal adviser duly authorized on his behalf, or in the case of a firm if it is signed by such agent or by a legal adviser or any one member of the firm on behalf of the firm.

164. Where the High Court makes an order for winding up a company under this Act, it may, if it thanks fit, direct all subsequent proceedings to be had in a District Court; and thereupon such District Court shall, for the purpose of winding up the company, be deemed to be “the Court” within the meaning of this Act, and shall have, for the purposes of such winding up, all the jurisdiction and powers of the High Court.

165. If during the progress of a winding up in a District Court it is made to appear to the High Court that the same could be more conveniently prosecuted in any other District Court having jurisdiction to wind up companies, the High Court may transfer the same to such other Court, and thereupon the winding up shall proceed in such other District Court.

166. An application to the Court for the winding up of a company shall be by petition presented, subject to the provisions of this section, either by the company, or by any creditor or creditors (including any contingent or prospective creditor or creditors), contributory or contributories, or by all or any of those parties, together or separately, or by the Registrar:

Provided that __

(a) a contributory shall not be entitled to present a petition for winding up a company unless __

(i) either the number of members is reduced, in the case of a private company, below two, or, in the case of any other company, below seven, or

(ii) the shares in respect of which he is a contributory or some of them either were originally allotted to him or have been held by him, and registered in his name, for at least six months during the eighteen months before the commencement of the winding up, or have devolved on him through the death of a former holder;

(aa)the Register shall not be entitle to present a petition for winding up a company __

(i) except on the ground that from the financial condition of the company as disclosed in its balance-sheet or from the report of an inspector appointed under section 138 it appears that the company is unable to pay its debts, and

(ii) unless the previous sanction of the President of the Union has been obtained to the presentation of the petition:

Provided that no such sanction shall be given unless the company has first been afforded an opportunity of being heard;

(b) a petition for winding up a company on the ground of default in filing the statutory report or in holding the statutory meeting shall not be presented by any person except a shareholder, nor before the expiration of fourteen days after the last day on which the meeting ought to have been held;

(c) the Court shall not given a hearing to a petition for winding up a company by a contingent or prospective creditor until such security for costs has been given as the Court thinks reasonable and until a prima facie case for winding up has been established to the satisfaction of the Court.

167. An order for winding up a company shall operate in favour of all the creditors and of all the contributories of the company as if made on the joint petition of a creditor and of a contributory.

168. A winding up of a company by the Court shall be deemed to commence at the time of the presentation of the petition for the winding up.

169. The Court may, at any time after the presentation of the petition for winding up a company under this Act, and before making an order for winding up the company, upon the application of the company or of any creditor or contributory of the company, restrain further proceedings against the company, upon such terms as the Court thinks fit.

170. (1) On hearing the petition the Court may dismiss it with or without costs, or adjourn the hearing conditionally or unconditionally, or adjourn the hearing conditionally or unconditionally, or make any interim order or any other order that it deems just, but the Court shall not refuse to make a winding up order on the ground only that the assets of the company have been mortgaged to an amount equal to or in excess of those assets, or that the company has no assets.

(2) Where the petition is presented on the ground of default in filing the statutory report or in holding the statutory meeting, the Court may order the costs to be paid by any persons who, in the opinion of the Court, are responsible for the default.

(3) Where the Court makes an order for the winding up of a company it shall, except where a liquidator is appointed simultaneously, forthwith cause intimation thereof to be sent to the official receiver.

171. When a winding up order has been made or a provisional liquidator has been appointed no suit or other legal proceeding shall be proceeded with or commenced against the company except by leave of the Court, and subject to such terms as the Court may impose.

171A. (1) For the purposes of this Act, so far as it relates to the winding up of companies by the Court, the term “Official receiver” means the official receiver attached to the Court, or, if there is no such official receiver, then such person as the President of the Union may, by notification in the Gazette, appoint for the purpose.

(2) On the making of a winding up order, the official receiver shall become the official liquidator of the company and shall continue to act as such until his further continuance is terminated by an order of the Court.

(3) The official receiver shall as such official liquidator forthwith take into his custody and control all the books, documents and the assets of the company.

(4) The official receiver shall be entitled to such remuneration as the Court shall fix.

172. (1) On the making of a winding up order it shall be the duty of the petitioner in the winding up proceedings and of the company to file with the Registrar a copy of the order within a month from the data of the making of the order.

(2) On the filing of a copy of a winding up order, the Registrar shall make a minute thereof in his books relating to the company, and shall notify in the Gazette that such an order has been made.

(3) Such order shall be deemed to be notice of discharge to the servants of the company, except when the business of the company is continued.

173. The Court may at any time after an order for winding up, on the application of any creditor or contributory, and on proof to the satisfaction of the Court that all proceedings in relation to the winding up ought to be stayed, make an order staying the proceedings, either altogether or for a limited time, on such terms and conditions as the Court thinks fit.

174. The Court may, as to all matters relating to a winding up, have regard to the wishes of the creditors or contributories as proved to it by any sufficient evidence.

Official Liquidators

175. (1) For the purpose of conducting the proceedings in winding up a company and performing such duties in reference thereto as the Court may impose, the Court may appoint a person or persons other than the official receiver to be called an official liquidator or official liquidators.

(2) The Court may make such an appointment provisionally at any time after the presentation of a petition and before the making of an order for winding up, but shall before making any such appointment give notice to the company, unless for reasons to be recorded it thinks fit to dispense with notice.

(3) If more persons than one are appointed to the office of official liquidator, the Court shall declare whether any act by this Act required or authorized to be done by the official liquidator is to be done by all or any one or more of such persons.

(4) The Court may determine whether any, and what, security is to be given by any official liquidator on his appointment.

(5) The acts of an official liquidator shall be valid notwithstanding any defect that may afterwards be discovered in his appointment:

Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall be deemed to give validity to acts done by an official liquidator after his appointment has been shown to be invalid.

(6) A receiver shall not be appointed of assets in the hands of an official liquidator.

176. (1) Any official liquidator may resign or be removed by the Court on due cause shown.

(2) Any vacancy in the official of an official liquidator appointed by the Court shall be filled up by the Court and until the vacancy is so filled up the official receiver shall be and act as the official liquidator.

(3) There shall be paid to the official liquidator such salary or remuneration, by way of percentage or otherwise, as the Court may direct; and, if more liquidators than one are appointed, such remuneration shall be distributed amongst them in such proportions as the Court directs.

177. The official liquidator shall be described by the style of the official liquidator of the particular company in respect of which he is appointed, and not by his individual name.

177A. (1) Where the Court has made a winding up order or appointed an official liquidator provisionally, there shall, unless the Court thinks fit to order otherwise and so orders, be made out and submitted to the official liquidator a statement as to the affairs of the company verified by an affidavit and containing the following particulars, namely:__

(a) the assets of the company, stating separately the cash balance in hand and at the bank, if any;

(b) the debts and liabilities;

(c) the names, residences and occupations of the creditors, stating separately the amount of secured debts and unsecured debts, and in the case of secured debts particulars of the securities, their value and the dates when they were given;

(d) the debts due to the company and the names, residence and occupations of the persons from whom they are due and the amount likely to be realized therefrom.

(2) The statement shall be submitted and verified by one or more of the persons who are at the relevant date the directors and by the person who is at that date the secretary, manager or other chief officer of the company, or by such of the persons hereinafter in the sub-section mentioned as the official liquidator, subject to the direction of the Court, may require to submit and verify the statement, that is to say, persons__

(a) who are or have been directors or officers of the company;

(b) who have taken part in the formation of the company at any time within one year before the relevant date;

(c) who are in the employment of the company or have been in the employment of the company within the said year and are in the opinion of the official liquidator capable of giving the information required;

(d) who are or have been within the said year officers of or in the employment of a company which is, or within the said year was, an officer of the company to which the statement relates.

(3) The statement shall be submitted within twenty-one days from the relevant date, or within such extended time as the official liquidator or the Court may for special reasons appoint.

(4) Any person making or concurring in making the statement and affidavit required by this section shall be allowed, and shall be paid by the official liquidator or provisional liquidator, as the case may be, out of the assets of the company, such costs and expenses incurred in and about the preparation and making of the statement and affidavit as the official liquidator may consider reasonable, subject to an appeal to the Court.

(5) If any person, without reasonable excuse, knowingly and willfully makes default in complying with the requirements of this section, he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one hundred rupees for every day during which the default continues.

 

(6) Any person stating himself in writing to be a creditor or contributory of the company shall be entitled by himself or by his agent at all reasonable times, on payment of the prescribed fee, to inspect the statement submitted in pursuance of this section, and to a copy thereof or extract therefrom.

(7) Any persona untruthfully so stating himself to be a creditor or contributory shall be guilty of an offence under section 182 of the Penal Code and shall, on the application of the liquidator or of the official receiver, be punishable accordingly.

(8) In this section the expression “the relevant date” means, in a case where a provisional liquidator is appointed, the date of his appointment, and, in a case where no such appointment is made, the date of the winding up order.

177B. (1) In a case where a winding up order is made, the official liquidator shall, as soon as practicable after receipt of the statement to be submitted under section 177A, and not later than four, or with the leave of the Court, six months from the date of the order, or in a case where the Court orders that no statement shall be submitted, as soon as practicable after the date of the order, submit a preliminary report to the Court __

(a) as to the amount of capital issued, subscribed, and paid up, and the estimated amount of assets and liabilities, giving separately under the heading of assets particulars of __

(i) cash and negotiable securities;

(ii) debts due from contributories;

(iii)debts due to and securities, if any, available to the company;

(iv) moveable and immoveable properties belonging to the company;

(v) unpaid calls ; and

(b) if the company has failed, as to the causes of the failure; and

(c) Whether in his opinion further inquiry is desirable as to any matter relating to the promotion, formation, or failure of the matter relating to the promotion, formation, or failure of the company, or the conduct of the business thereof.

(2) The official liquidator may also, if he thinks fit, make a further report, or further reports, stating the manner in which the company was formed and whether in his opinion any fraud has been committed by any person in its promotion or formation, or by any director or other officer of the company in relation to the company since the formation thereof, and any other matter which in his opinion it is desirable to bring to the notice of the Court.

178. (1) The official liquidator, whether appointed provisionally or not, shall take into his custody, or under his control, all the property, effects and actionable claims to which the company is or appears to be entitled.

(2) All the property and effects of the company shall be deemed to be in the custody of the Court as from the date of the order for the winding up of the company.

178A. (1) The official liquidator shall within a month from the date of the order for the winding up of a company convene a meeting of the creditors of the company (as ascertained from the books and documents of the company) for the purpose of determining whether or not a committee in inspection shall be appointed to act with the liquidator, and who are to be members of the committee, if appointed.

(2) The official liquidator shall within a week from the date of the creditors’ meeting convene a meeting of the contributories to consider the decision of the creditors and to accept the same with or without modifications.

(3) If the contributories do not accept the decision of the creditors in its entirety, it shall be the duty of the official liquidator to apply to the Court for directions as to whether there shall be a committee of inspection and, if so, what shall be the composition of the committee, and who shall be members thereof.

(4) A committee of inspection appointed under this section shall consist of not more than twelve members being creditors and contributories of the company, or persons holding general or special powers-of-attorney from creditors or contributories, in such proportions as may be agreed on by the meetings of creditors and contributories, or as, in case of difference, may be determined by the Court.

(5) The committee of inspection shall have the right to inspect the accounts of the official liquidator at all reasonable times.

(6) The committee shall meet at such times as they may from time to time appoint, and, failing such appointment, at least once a month, and the liquidator or any member of the committee may also call a meeting of the committee as and when he thinks necessary.

(7) The committee may act by a majority of their members present at a meeting, but shall not act unless a majority of the committee is present.

(8) A member of the committee may resign by notice in writing signed by him and delivered to the liquidator.

(9) If a member of the committee becomes bankrupt, or compounds or arranges with his creditors, or is absent from five consecutive meetings of the committee without the leave of those members who together with himself represent the creditors or contributories, as the case may be, his office shall thereupon become vacant.

(10) A member of the committee may be removed by an ordinary resolution at a meeting of creditors if he represents creditors, or of contributories if he represents contributories, of which seven days’ notice has been given, stating the object of the meeting.

(11) On a vacancy occurring in the committee the liquidator shall forthwith summon a meeting of creditors or of contributories, as the case may require, to fill the vacancy, and the meeting may, by resolution, re-appoint the same or appoint another creditor or contributory to fill the vacancy.

(12) The continuing members of the committee, if not less than two may act notwithstanding any vacancy in the committee.

179. The official liquidator shall have power, with the sanction of the Court, to do the following things: __

(a) to institute or defend any suit or prosecution, or other legal proceeding, civil or criminal, in the name and on behalf of the company;

(b) to carry on the business of the company so far as may be necessary for the beneficial winding up of the same;

(c) to sell the immoveable and moveable property of the company by public auction or private contract, with power to transfer the whole thereof to any person or company, or to sell the same in parcels;

(d) to do all acts and to execute, in the name and on behalf of the company, all deeds, receipts, and other documents, and for that purpose to use, when necessary, the company’s seal;

(e) to prove, frank and claim in the insolvency of any contributory for any balance against his estate, and to receiver dividends in the insolvency, in respect of that balance, as a separate debt due from the insolvent, and ratably with the other separate creditors;

(f) to draw, accept, make and indorse any bill of exchange, hundi or promissory note in the name and on behalf of the company, with the same effect with respect to the liability of the company as if the bill, hundi, or note had been drawn, accepted, made or indorsed by or on behalf of the company in the course of its business;

(g) to raise, on the security of the assets of the company, any money requisite;

(h) to take out, in his official name, letters of administration to any deceased contributory, and to do in his official name any other act necessary for obtaining payment of any money due from a contributory or his estate which cannot be conveniently done in the name of the company; and in all such cases the money due shall, for the purpose of enabling the liquidator to take out the letters of administration or recover the money, be deemed to be due to the liquidator himself:

Provided that nothing herein empowered shall be deemed to affect the rights, duties and privileges of the Administrator-General;

(i) to do all such other things as may be necessary for winding up the affairs of the company and

distributing its assets.

180. The Court may provide by any order that the official liquidator may exercise any of the above

powers without the sanction or intervention of the Court, and, where an official liquidator is

provisionally appointed, may limit and restrict his powers by the order appointing him.

181. The official liquidator may, with the sanction of the Court appoint a legal practitioner entitled to

appear before the Court to assist him in the performance of his duties: Provided that, where the official

liquidator is a legal practitioner, he shall not appoint his partner unless the latter consents to act without

remuneration.

182. (1) The official liquidator of a company which is being wound up by the Court shall keep, in

manner prescribed, proper books in which he shall cause to be made entries or minutes of proceedings

at meetings, and of such other matters as may be prescribed, and any creditor or contributory may,

subject to the control of the Court, personally or by his agent inspect any such books.

(2) Every official liquidator shall, at such times as may be prescribed but not less than twice in each

year during his tenure of office, present to the Court an account of his receipts and payment as such

liquidator.

(3) The account shall be in the prescribed form, shall be made in duplicate, and shall be verified by a

declaration in the prescribed form.

(4) The Court shall cause the account to be audited in such manner as it thinks fit, and for the

purpose of the audit the liquidator shall furnish the Court with such vouchers and information as the

Court may require, and the Court may at any time require the production of and inspect any books or

accounts kept by the liquidator.

(5) When the account has been audited, one copy thereof shall be filed and kept by the Court, and the

other copy shall be delivered to the Registrar for filing, and each copy shall be open to the inspection of

any creditor, or of any person interested.

183. (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the official liquidator of a company which is being

wound up by the Court shall, in the administration of the assets of the company and in the distribution

thereof among its creditors, have regard to any directions that may be given by resolution of the

creditors or contributories at any general meeting or by the committee of inspection, and any directions

given by the creditors or contributories at any general meeting shall in case of conflict be deemed to

override any directions given by the committee of inspection.

(2) The official liquidator may summon general meetings of the creditors or contributories for the

purpose of ascertaining their wishes, and it shall be his duty to summon meetings at such times as the

creditors or contributories, by resolution, may direct, or whenever requested in writing to do so by onetenth

in value of the creditors or contributories, as the case may be.

(3) The official liquidator may apply to the Court in manner prescribed for directions in relation to

any particular matter arising in the winding up.

(4) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the official liquidator shall use his own discretion in the

administration of the assets of the company and in the distribution thereof among the creditors.

(5) If any person is aggrieved by any act or decision of the official liquidator, that person may apply

to the Court, and the Court may confirm, reverse or modify the act or decision complained of, and make

such order as it thinks just in the circumstances.

Ordinary Powers of Court.

184. (1) As soon as may be after making a winding up order, the Court shall settle a list of

contributories, with power to rectify the register of members in all cases where rectification is required

in pursuance of this Act, and shall cause the assets of the company to be collected and applied in

discharge of its liabilities.

(2) In settling the list of contributories, the Court shall distinguish between persons who are

contributories in their own right and persons who are contributories as being representatives of or liable

for the debts of others.

185. The Court may, at any time after making a winding up order, require and contributory for the

time being settled on the list of contributories and any trustee, receiver, banker, agent, or officer of the

company to pay, deliver, surrender or transfer forthwith, or within such time as the Court directs, to the

official liquidator any money, property or documents in his hands to which the company is prima facie

entitled.

186. (1) The Court may, at any time after making a winding up order, make an order on any

contributory for the time being settled on the list of contributories to pay, in manner directed by the

order, any money due from him or from the estate of the person whom he represents to the company

exclusive of any money payable by him or the estate by virtue of any call in pursuance of this Act.

(2) The Court in making such an order may, in the case of an unlimited company, allow to the

contributory by way of set-off any money due to him or to the estate which he represents from the

company on any independent dealing or contract with the company, but not any money due to him as a

member of the company in respect of any dividend or profit; and may, in the case of a limited company,

make to any director whose liability is unlimited or to his estate the like allowance:

Provided that, in the case of any company whether limited or unlimited, when all the creditors are

paid in full, any money due on any account whatever to a contributory from the company may be

allowed to him by way of set-off against any subsequent call.

187. (1) The Court may, at any time after making a winding up order, and either before or after it has

ascertained the sufficiency of the assets of the company, make calls on the order payment thereof by all

or any of the contributories for the time being settled on the list of the contributories to the extent of

their liability, for payment of any money which the Court considers necessary to satisfy the debts and

liabilities of the company, and the costs, charges and expenses of winding up, and for the adjustment of

the rights of the contributories among themselves.

(2) In making the call the Court may take into consideration the probability that some of the

contributories may partly or wholly fail to pay the call.

188. The Court may order any contributory, purchaser or other person from whom money is due to the

company to pay the same into the account of the official liquidator in any scheduled bank instead of to

the official liquidator, and any such order may be enforced in the same manner as if it had directed

payment to the official liquidator.

189. All moneys, bills, hundis, notes and other securities paid and delivered into the bank where the

liquidator of the company may have his account, in the event of a company being wound up by the

Court, shall be subject in all respects to the orders of the Court.

190. (1) An order made by the Court on a contributory shall (subject to any right of appeal) be

conclusive evidence that the money, if any, thereby appearing to be due or ordered to be paid is due.

(2) All other pertinent matters stated in the order shall be taken to be truly stated as against all

persons and in all proceedings whatsoever.

191. The Court may fix a time or times within which creditors are to prove their debts or claims, or

to be excluded from the benefit of any distribution made before those debts are proved.

192. The Court shall adjust the rights of the contributories among themselves, and distribute any

surplus among the persons entitle thereto.

193. The Court may, in the event of the assets being insufficient to satisfy the liabilities, make an

order as to the payment out of the assets of the costs, charge and expenses incurred in the winding up in

such order of priority as the Court thinks just.

194. (1) When the affairs of a company have been completely wound up, the Court shall make an

order that the company be dissolved from the date of the order, and the company shall be dissolved

accordingly.

(2) The order shall be reported within fifteen days of the making thereof by the official liquidator to

the Registrar, who shall make in his books a minute of the dissolution of the company.

(3) If the official liquidator makes default in complying with the requirements of this section, he shall

be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day during which he is in default.

Extraordinary Powers of Court.

195. (1) The Court may, after it has made a winding up order, summon before it any officer of the

Company or person known or suspected to have in his possession any property of the company, or

supposed to be indebted to the company, or any person whom the Court deems capable of giving

information concerning the trade, dealings, affairs or property of the company.

(2) The Court may examine him on oath concerning the same, either by word of mouth or on written

interrogatories, and may reduce his answers to writing and require him to sign them.

(3) The Court may require him to produce any documents in his custody or power relating to the

company; but, where he claims any lien on documents produced by him, the production shall be without

prejudice to that lien, and the Court shall have jurisdiction in the winding up to determine all questions

relating to that lien.

(4) If any person so summoned, after being tendered a reasonable sum for his expenses, refuses to

come before the Court at the time appointed, not having a lawful impediment (made known to the Court

at the time of its sitting, and allowed by it), the Court may cause him to be apprehended and brought

before the Court for examination.

196. (1) When an order has been made for winding up a company by the Court, and the official

liquidator has applied to the Court stating that in his opinion a fraud has been committed by any person

 

in the promotion or formation of the company or by any director or other officer of the company, in

relation to the company since its formation, the Court may, after consideration of the application, direct

that any person who has taken any part in the promotion or formation of the company, or has been a

director, manager or other officer of the company, shall attend before the Court on a day appointed by

the Court for that purpose, and be publicly examined as to the promotion or formation or the conduct of

the business of the company, or as to his conduct and dealings as director, manager or other officer

thereof.

(2) The official liquidator shall take part in the examination, and for that purpose may, if specially

authorized by the Court in that behalf, employ such legal assistance as may be sanctioned by the Court.

(3) Any creditor or contributory may also take part in the examination either personally or by any

person entitled to appear before the Court.

(4) The Court may put such questions to the person examined as the Court thinks fit.

(5) The person examined shall be examined on oath, and shall answer all such questions as the Court

may put to be put to him.

(6) A person ordered to be examined under this section may at his own cost employ any person

entitle to appear before the Court, who shall be at liberty to put to him such questions as the Court may

deem just for the purpose of enabling him to explain or qualify any answers given by him: Provided that

if he is, in the opinion of the Court, exculpated from any charges made or suggested against him, the

Court may allow him such costs as in its discretion it may think fit.

(7) Notes of the examination shall be taken down in writing, and shall be read over to or by, and

singed by, the person examined, and may thereafter be used in evidence against him in civil

proceedings, and shall be open to the inspection of any creditor or contributory at all reasonable times.

(8) The Court may, if it thinks fit, adjourn the examination from time to time.

(9) An examination under this section may, if the Court so directs, and subject to any rules in this

behalf, be held before any District Judge or before any officer of the High Court, being an official

referee, master, registrar or deputy registrar, and the powers of the Court under this section as to the

conduct of the examination, but not as to costs, may be exercised by the person before whom the

examination is held.

197. The Court, at any time either before or after making a winding up order, on proof of probable

cause for believing that a contributory is about to quit the Union of Burma or otherwise to abscond, or

to remove or conceal any of his property for the purpose of evading payment of calls or of avoiding

examination respecting the affairs of the company, may cause the contributory to be arrested and his

books and papers and moveable property to be seized, and him and them to be safely kept until such

time as the Court may order.

198. Any powers by this Act conferred on the Court shall be in addition to, and not in restriction of,

any existing powers of instituting proceedings against any contributory or debtor of the company, or the

estate of any contributory or debtor, for the recovery of any call or other sums.

Enforcement of and Appeal from Orders.

199. All orders made by a Court under this Act may be enforced in the same manner in which decrees

of such Court made in any suit pending therein may be enforced.

200. Any order made by a Court for or in the course of the winding up of a company shall be

enforced in any place in the Union of Burma, other than that in which such Court is situate, by the Court

that would have had jurisdiction in respect of such company if the registered office of the company had

been situate at such other place, and in the same manner in all respects as if such order had been made

by the Court that is hereby required to enforce the same.

201. Where any order made by one Court is to be enforced by another Court, a certified copy of the

order so made shall be produced to the proper officer of the Court required to enforce the same, and the

production of such certified copy shall be sufficient evidence of such order having been made; and

thereupon the last-mentioned Court shall take the requisite steps in the matter for enforcing the order, in

the same manner as if it were the order of the Court enforcing the same.

202. Re-hearings of and appeals from any order or decision made or given in the matter of the

winding up of a company by the Court may be had in the same manner and subject to the same

conditions in and subject to which appeals may be had from any order or decision of the same Court In

eases within its ordinary jurisdiction.

Voluntary Winding up.

203. A company may be wound up voluntarily __

(1) when the period (if any) fixed for the duration of the company by the articles expires, or the

event (if any) occurs on the occurrence of which the articles provide that the company is to be

dissolved, and the company in general meeting has passed a resolution requiring the company to be

wound up voluntarily ;

(2) if the company resolves by special resolution that the company be wound up voluntarily ;

(3) if the company resolves by extraordinary resolution to the effect that it cannot by reason of its

liabilities continue its business, and that it is advisable to wind up ;

and the expression “resolution for voluntarily winding up” when used hereafter in this Part

means a resolution passed under clause (1), clause (2) or clause (3) of this section.

204. A voluntary winding up shall be deemed to commence at the time of the passing of the

resolution for voluntarily winding up.

205. When a company is wound up voluntarily, the company shall, from the commencement of the

winding up, cease to carry on its business, except so far as may be required for the beneficial winding

up thereof:

Provided that the corporate state and corporate powers of the company shall, notwithstanding

anything to the contrary in its articles, continue until it is dissolved.

206. (1) Notice of any special resolution or extraordinary resolution for winding up a company

voluntarily shall be given by the company within ten days of the passing of the same by advertisement

in the passing of the same by advertisement in the Gazette and also in some newspaper (if any)

circulating in the district where the registered office of the company is situate.

(2) If a company makes default in complying with the requirements of this section, it shall be liable

to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day during which the default continues; and every officer

of the company who knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits the default shall be liable to a like

penalty.

207. (1) Where it is proposed to wind up a company voluntarily, the directors of the company or, in

the case of a company having more than two directors, the majority of the directors may, at a meeting of

the directors held before the date on which the notices of the meeting at which the resolution for the

winding up of the company is to be proposed are sent out, make a declaration verified by an affidavit to

the company, and that, having so done, they have formed the opinion that the company will be able to

pay its debts in full within a period, not exceeding three years, from the commencement of the winding

up.

(2) Such declaration shall be supported by a report of the company’s auditors on the company’s

affairs, and shall have no effect for the purposes of this Act unless it is delivered to the Registrar for

registration before the date mentioned in sub-section (1) of this section.

(3) A winding up in the case of which a declaration has been made and delivered in accordance with

this section is in this Act referred to as a “members’ voluntary winding up”, and a winding up in the

case of which a declaration has not been made and delivered as aforesaid is in this Act referred to as a

“creditors’ voluntary winding up”.

Members’ Voluntary Winding up.

208. The provisions contained in sections 208A to 208E, both inclusive, shall apply in relation to a

members’ voluntary winding up.

208A. (1) The company in general meeting shall appoint one or more liquidators for the purpose of

winding up the affairs and distributing the assets of the company, and may fix the remuneration to be

paid to him or them.

(2) On the appointment of a liquidator all the powers of the directors shall cease, except so far as the

company in general meeting, or the liquidator, sanctions the continuance thereof.

208B. (1) If a vacancy occurs by death, resignation or otherwise in the office of liquidator appointed

by the company, to any arrangement with its creditors, fill the vacancy.

(2) For that purpose a general meeting may be convened by any contributory or, if there were more

liquidators than one, by the continuing liquidators.

(3) The meeting shall be held in manner provided by this Act or by the articles, or in such manner as

may, on application by any contributory or by the continuing liquidators, be determined by the Court.

208C. (1) Where a company is proposed to be, or is in course of being, wound up altogether

voluntarily, and the whole or part of its business or property is proposed to be transferred or sold to

another company, whether a company within the meaning of this Act or not (in this section called “the

transferee company”), the liquidator of the first mentioned company (in this section called “the

transferor company”) may, with the sanction of a special resolution of that company conferring either a

general authority on the liquidator or an authority in respect of any particular arrangement, receive, in

compensation or part compensation for the transfer or sale, shares, policies, or other like interests in the

transferee company, or distribution among the members of the transferor company, or may enter into

any other arrangement whereby the members of the transferor company may, in lieu of receiving cash,

shares, policies, or other like interests or in addition thereto, participate in the profits of or receive any

other benefit from the transferee company.

(2) Any sale or arrangement in pursuance of this section shall be binding on the members of the

transferor company.

(3) If any member of the transferor company who did not vote in favour of the special resolution

expresses his dissent therefrom in writing address to the liquidator and left at the registered office of the

company within seven days after the passing of the special resolution, he may require the liquidator

either to abstain from carrying the resolution into effect or to purchase his interest at a price to be

determined by agreement or by arbitration in manner hereafter provided.

(4) If the liquidator elects to purchase the member’s interest, the purchase money must be paid before

the company is dissolved, and be raised by the liquidator in such manner as may be determined by

special resolution.

(5) A special resolution shall not be invalid for the purposes of this section by reason that it is passed

before or concurrently with a resolution for voluntary winding up or for appointing liquidators, but if an

order is made within a year for winding up the company by or subject to the supervision of the Court,

the special resolution shall not be valid unless sanctioned by the Court.

(6) The provisions of the Arbitration Act, other than those restricting the application of the Act in

respect of the subject-matter of the arbitration, shall apply to all arbitrations in pursuance of this section.

208D. (1) In the event of the winding up continuing for more than one year, the liquidator shall

summon a general meeting of the company at the end of the first year from the commencement of the

winding up and of each succeeding year, or as soon thereafter as may be convenient within ninety days

of the close of the year, and shall lay before the meeting an account of his acts and dealings and of the

conduct of the winding up during the preceding year and a statement in the prescribed form containing

the prescribed particulars with respect to the position of the liquidation.

(2) If the liquidator fails to comply with this section, he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one

hundred rupees.

208E. (1) As soon as the affairs of the company are fully wound up, the liquidator shall make up an

account of the winding up, showing how the winding up has been conducted and the property of the

company has been disposed of, and thereupon shall call a general meeting of the company for the

purpose of laying before it the account and giving any explanation thereof.

(2) The meeting shall be called by advertisement specifying the time, place and object thereof, and

published one month at least before the meeting in the manner specified in sub-section (1) of section

206 for publication of a notice under that sub-section.

(3) Within one week after the meeting, the liquidator shall send to the Registrar a copy of the

account, and shall make a return to him of the holding of the meeting and of its date, and if the copy is

not sent or the return is not sent or the return is not made in accordance with this sub-section the

liquidator shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day during which the default

continues :

Provided that, if a quorum is not present at the meeting, the liquidator shall, in lieu of the said return,

make a return that the meeting was duly summoned and that no quorum was present thereat, and upon

such a return being made the provisions of this sub-section as to the making of the return shall be

deemed to have been complied with.

(4) The Registrar on receiving the account and either of the returns mentioned in sub-section (3)

shall forthwith register them, and on the expiration of three months from the registration of the return

the company shall be deemed to be dissolved :

Provided that the Court may, on the application of the liquidator or of any other person who appears

to the Court to be interested, make an order deferring the date at which the dissolution of the company

is to take effect for such time as the Court thinks fit.

(5) Is shall be the duty of the person on whose application an order of the Court under this section is

made, within twenty-one day after the making of the order, to deliver to the Registrar a certified copy of

the order for registration, and if that person fails so to do he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty

rupees for every day during which the default continues.

Creditors’ Voluntary Winding up.

209. The provisions contained in sections 209A to 209H, both inclusive, shall apply in relation to a

creditors’ voluntary winding up.

209A. (1) The company shall cause a meeting of the creditors of the company to be summoned for

the day, or the day next following the day, on which there is to be held the meeting at which the

resolution for voluntary winding up is to be proposed, and shall cause the notices of the said meeting of

creditors to be sent by post to the creditors simultaneously with the sending of the notices of the said

meeting of the company.

(2) The company shall cause notice of the meeting of the creditors to be advertised in the manner

specified in sub-section (1) of section 206 for the publication of a notice under that sub-section.

(3) The directors of the company shall __

(a) cause a full statement of the position of the company’s affairs together with a list of the

creditors of the company and the estimated amount of their claims to be laid before the

meeting of creditors to be held as aforesaid ; and

(b) appoint one of their number to preside at the said meeting.

(4) Is shall be the duty of the director appointed to preside at the meeting of creditors to attend the

meeting and preside thereat.

(5) If the meaning of the company at which the resolution for voluntary winding up is to be proposed

is adjourned and the resolution is passed at an adjourned meeting, any resolution passed at the meeting

of the creditors, held in pursuance of sub-section (1) of this section, shall have effect as if it had been

passed immediately after the passing of the resolution for winding up the company.

(6) If default is made __

(a) by the company in complying with sub-sections (1) and (2);

(b) by the directors of the company in complying with sub-section (3);

(c) by any director of the company in complying with sub-section (4) ;

the company, directors or director, as the case may be, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one

thousand rupees, and, in the case of default by the company, every officer of the company who is in

default shall be liable to the lie penalty.

209B. The creditors and the company at their respective meetings mentioned in section 209A may

nominate a person to be liquidator for the purpose of winding up the affairs and distributing the assets

of the company, and if the creditors and the company nominate different persons, the person nominated

by the creditors shall be liquidator, and if no person is nominated by the creditors the person, if any,

nominated by the company shall be liquidator:

Provided that, in the case of different persons being nominated, any director, member or creditor of

the company may, within seven days after the date on which the nomination was made by the creditors,

apply to the Court for an order either directing that the person nominated as liquidator by the company

shall be liquidator instead of or jointly with the person nominated by the creditors, or appointing some

other person to be liquidator instead of the person appointed by the creditors.

209C. The creditors at the meeting to be held in pursuance of section 209A or at any subsequent

meeting may, if they think fit, appoint a committee of inspection consisting of not more than five

persons, and if such a committee is appointed the company may, either at the meeting at which the

resolution for voluntary winding up is passed or at any time subsequently in general meeting, appoint

such number of persons as they think fit to act as members of the committee not exceeding five in

number:

Provide that the creditors may, if they think fit, resolve that all or any of the persons so appointed by

the company ought not to be members of the committee of inspection, and, if the creditors so resolve,

the persons mentioned in the resolution shall not, unless the Court otherwise directs, be qualified to act

as members of the committee, and on any application to the Court under this provision the Court may, if

it thinks fit, appoint other persons to act as such members in place of the persons mentioned in the

resolution.

209D. (1) The committee of inspection, or if there is no such committee, the creditors, may fix the

remuneration to be paid to the liquidator or liquidators, and where the remuneration is not so fixed, it

shall be determined by the Court.

(2) On the appointment of a liquidator, all the powers of the directors shall cease, except so far as the

committee of inspection, or if there is no such committee, the creditors, sanction the continuance

thereof.

209E. If a vacancy occurs by death, resignation or otherwise in the office of a liquidator, other than a

liquidator appointed by or by the direction of the Court, the creditors may fill the vacancy.

209F. The provisions of section 208C shall apply in the case of a creditors’ voluntary winding up as

in the case of a members’ voluntary winding up, with the under the said section shall not be exercised

except with the sanction either of the Court or of the committee of inspection.

209G. (1) In the event of the winding up continuing for more than one year, the liquidator shall

summon a general meeting of the company and a meeting of creditors at the end of the first year from

the commencement of the winding up, and of each succeeding year, or as soon thereafter as may

convenient, and shall lay before the meetings an account of his acts and dealings and of the conduct of

the winding up during the preceding year and a statement in the prescribed form containing the

prescribed particulars with respect to the position of the winding up.

(2) If the liquidator fails to comply with this section, he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one

hundred rupees.

209H. (1) As soon as the affairs of the company are fully wound up, the liquidator, shall make up an

account of the winding up, showing how the winding up has been conducted and the property of the

company has been disposed of, and thereupon shall call a general meeting of the company and a

meeting of the creditors for the purpose of laying the account before the meetings and giving any

explanation thereof.

(2) Each such meeting shall be called by advertisement specifying the time, place and object thereof,

and published one month at least before the meeting in the manner specified in sub-section (1) of

section 206 for the publication of a notice under that sub-section.

(3) Within one week after the date of the meetings, or, if the meetings are not held on the same date,

after the date of the later meeting, the liquidator shall send to the Registrar a copy of the account, and

shall make a return to him of the holding of the meetings and of their dates, and if the copy is not sent or

the return is not made in accordance with this sub-section the liquidator shall be liable to a fine not

exceeding fifty rupees for every day during which the default continues:

 

Provided that, if a quorum (which for the purposes of this section shall be two persons) is not present

at either such meeting, the liquidator shall, in lieu of such return, make a return that the meeting was

duly summoned and that no quorum was present thereat, and upon such a return being made the

provisions of this sub-section as to the making of the return shall, in respect of that meeting, be deemed

to have been complied with.

(4) The Registrar on receiving the account and in respect of each such meeting either of the returns

mentioned in sub-section (3) shall forthwith register them, and on the expiration of three months from

the registration thereof the company shall be deemed to be dissolved:

Provided that the Court may, on the application of the liquidator or of any other person who appears

to the Court to be interested, make an order deferring the date at which the dissolution of the company

is to take effect for such time as the Court thinks fit.

(5) It shall be the duty of the person on whose application an order of the Court under this section is

made, within ten days after the making of the order, to deliver to the Registrar a certified copy of the

order for registration, and if that person fails to do so he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty

rupees for every day during which the default continues.

Members’ or Creditors’ Voluntary Winding up.

201. The provisions contained in section 211 to 218, both inclusive shall apply to every voluntary

winding up, whether a members’ or a creditors’ winding up.

211. Subject to the provisions of this Act as to preferential payments the property of a company shall,

on its winding up, be applied in satisfaction of its liabilities pari passu and, subject to such application,

shall, unless the articles otherwise provided, be distributed among the members according to their rights

and interests in the company.

212. (1) The liquidator may __

(a) in the case of a members’ voluntary winding up, with the sanction of an extraordinary resolution

of the company, and in the case of a creditors’ voluntary winding up, with the sanction of either

the Court or the committee of inspection, exercise any of the powers given by clauses (d), (e), (f)

and (h) of section 179 to a liquidator in a winding up. The exercise by the liquidator of the

powers given by this clause shall be subject to the control of the Court and any creditor or

contributory may apply to the Court with respect to any exercise or proposed exercise of any of

these powers;

(b) without the sanction referred to in clause (a), exercise any of the other powers by this Act given

to the liquidator in a winding up by the Court’

(c) exercise the power of the Court under this Act of setting a list of contributories, and the list of

contributories shall be prima facie evidence of the liability of the persons named therein to be

contributories;

(d) exercise the power of the Court of making calls;

(e) summon general meetings of the company for the purpose of obtaining the sanction of the

company by special or extraordinary resolution or for any other purpose he may think fit.

(2) The liquidator shall pay the debts of the company and shall adjust the rights of the contributories

among themselves.

(3) When several liquidators are appointed, any power given by this Act may be exercised by such

one or more of them as may be determined at the time of their appointment, or, in default of such

determination, by any number not less than two.

213. (1) If from any cause whatever there is no liquidator acting, the Court may appoint a liquidator.

(2) The Court may, on cause shown, remove a liquidator and appoint another liquidator.

214. (1) The liquidator shall, within twenty-one days after his appointment, deliver to the Registrar for

registration a notice of his appointment in the form prescribed.

(2) If the liquidator fails to comply with the requirements of this section, he shall be liable to a fine

not exceeding fifty rupees for every day during which the default continues.

215. (1) Any arrangement entered into between a company about to be, or in the course of being,

wound up and its creditors shall, subject to the right of appeal under this section, be binding on the

company if sanctioned by an extraordinary resolution, and on the creditors if acceded to by threefourths

in number and value of the creditors.

(2) Any creditor or contributory may, within three weeks from the completion of the arrangement,

appeal to the Court against it, and the Court may thereupon, as it thinks just, amend, vary or confirm the

arrangement.

216. (1) The liquidator or any contributory or creditor may apply to the Court to determine any

question arising in the winding up of a company, or to exercise, as respects the enforcing of calls,

staying of proceedings or any other matter, all or any of the powers which the Court might exercise if

the company were being wound up by the Court.

(2) The liquidator or any creditor or contributory may apply for an order setting aside any attachment,

distress or execution put into force against the estate or effects of the company after the commencement

of the winding up.

Such application shall be made __

(a) if the attachment, distress or execution is levied or put into force by the High Court, to the High

Court, and

(b) if the attachment, distress or execution is levied or put into force in any other Court, to the Court

having jurisdiction to wind up the company.

(3) The Court, if satisfied that the determination of the question or the required exercise of power or

the order applied for will be just and beneficial, may accede wholly or partially to the application on

such terms and conditions as its thinks fit, or may make such other order on the application as it thinks

just.

217. All costs, charges and expenses properly incurred in the winding up, including the remuneration

of the liquidator, shall, subject to the rights of secured creditors, if any, be payable out of the assets of

the company in priority to all other claims.

218. The winding up of a company shall not bar the right of any creditor or contributory to have it

wound up by the Court, but in the case of an application by a contributory the Court must be satisfied

that the rights of the contributories will be prejudiced by a voluntary winding up.

219. * * * *

220. Where a company is being wound up voluntarily, and an order is made for winding up by the

Court, the Court may, if it thinks fit, by the same or any subsequent order, provide for the adoption of

all or any of the proceedings in the voluntary winding up.

Winding up subject of Supervision of Court.

221. When a company has by special or extraordinary resolution resolved to wind up voluntarily, the

Court may make an order that the voluntary winding up shall continue, but subject to such supervision

of the Court, and with such liberty for creditors, contributories or others to apply to the Court, and

generally on such terms and conditions as the Court thinks just.

122. A petition for the continuance of a voluntary winding up subject to the supervision of the Court

shall, for the purpose of giving jurisdiction to the Court over suits, be deemed to be a petition for

winding up by the Court.

123. The Court may, in deciding between a winding up by the Court and a winding up subject to

supervision, in the appointment of liquidators, and in all other matters relating to the winding up subject

to supervision, have regard to the wishes of the creditors or contributories as proved to it by any

sufficient evidence.

124. (1) Where an order is made for a winding up subject to supervision, the Court may by the same

or any subsequent order appoint any additional liquidator.

(2) A liquidator appointed by the Court under this section shall have the same powers, be subject to

the same obligations, and in all respects stand in the same position as if he had been appointed by the

company.

(3) The Court may remove any liquidator so appointed by the Court or any liquidator continued

under the supervision order, and fill any vacancy occasioned by the removal or by death or resignation.

225. (1) Where an order is made for a winding up subject to supervision, the liquidator may, subject

to any restrictions imposed by the Court, exercise all his powers without the sanction or intervention of

the Court, in the same manner as if the company were being wound up altogether voluntarily.

(2) Except as provided in sub-section (1), and save for the purpose of section 196, any order made

by the Court for a winding up subject to the supervision of the Court shall for all purposes, including the

staying of suits and other proceedings, be deemed to be an order of the Court for winding up the

company by the Court, and shall confer full authority on the Court to make calls, or to enforce calls

made by the liquidators, and to exercise all other powers which it might have exercised if an order had

been made for winding up the company altogether by the Court.

(3) In the construction of the provisions whereby the Court is empowered to direct any act or thing to

be done to or in favour of the official liquidator, the expression “official liquidator” shall be deemed to

mean the liquidator conducting the winding up subject to the supervision of the Court.

226. Where an order has been made for the winding up of a company subject to supervision, and an

order if afterwards made for winding up by the Court, the Court may, by the last-mentioned order or by

any subsequent order, appoint the voluntary liquidators or any of them, either provisionally or

permanently, and either with or without the addition of any other person, to be official liquidator in the

winding up by the Court.

Supplemental Provisions.

227. (1) In the case of voluntary winding up every transfer of shares, except transfers made to or with

the sanction of the liquidator, and every alteration in the status of the members of the company, made

after the commencement of the winding up, shall be void.

 

(2) In the case of a winding up by or subject to the supervision of the Court, every disposition of the

property (including actionable claims) of the company, and every transfer of shares, or alteration in the

status of its members, made after the commencement of the winding up, shall, unless the Court

otherwise orders, be void.

228. In every winding up (subject in the case of insolvent companies to the application in accordance

with the provision of this Act of the law of insolvency) all debts payable on a contingency, and all

claims against the company, present or future, certain or contingent, shall be admissible to proof against

the company, a just estimate being made, so far as possible, of the value of such debts or claims as may

be subject to any contingency or for some other reason do not bear a certain value.

229. In the winding up of an insolvent company the same rules shall prevail and be observed with

regard to the respective right of secured and unsecured creditors and to debts provable and to the

valuation of annuities and future and contingent liabilities as are in force for the time being under the

law of insolvency with respect to the estates of persons adjudged insolvent; and all persons who in any

such case would be entitled to prove for and receive dividends out of the company may come in under

the winding up, and make such claims against the company as they respectively are entitled to by virtue

of this section.

230. (1) In a winding up there shall be paid in priority to all other debts __

(a) all revenue, taxes, cesses and rates, whether payable to the Government or to a local authority,

due from the company at the date hereinafter mentioned and having become due and payable

within the twelve months next before that date;

(b) all wages or salary of clerk or servant in respect of service rendered to the company within the

two months next before the said date, not exceeding one thousand rupees for each clerk or

servant;

(c) all wages of any labourer or workman, not exceeding five hundred rupees for each, whether

payable for time or piecework, in respect of services rendered to the company within the two

months next before the said date;

(d) compensation payable under the Workmen’s Compensation Act in respect of the death or

disablement of any officer or employee of the company;

(e) all sums due to any employee from a provident fund, a pension fund, a gratuity fund or any other

fund for the welfare of the employees maintained by the company; and

(f) the expenses of any investigation held in pursuance of clause (iv) of section 138 of this Act.

(2) The foregoing debts shall __

(a) rank equally among themselves and be paid in full, unless the assets are insufficient to meet

them, in which case they shall abate in equal proportion; and

(b) so far as the assets of the company available for payment of general creditors are insufficient to

meet them, have priority over the claims of holders of debentures under any floating charge

created by the company, and be paid accordingly out of any property comprised in or subject to

that charge.

(3) Subject to the retention of such sums as may be necessary for the costs and expenses of the

winding up, the fore going debts shall be discharged forthwith so far as the assets are sufficient to meet

them.

(4) In the event to the a landlord or other person distaining or having distained on any goods or

effects of the company within three months next before the date of a winding up order, the debts to

which priority is given by this section shall be a first charge on the goods or effects so distained on, or

the proceeds of the sale thereof:

Provided that in respect of any money paid under any such charge the landlord or other person shall

have the same rights of priority as the person to whom the payment is made.

(5) The date hereinbefore in this section referred to is __

(a) in the case of a company ordered to be wound up compulsorily which had not previously

commenced to be wound up voluntarily, the date of the winding up order; and

(b) in any other case, the date of the commencement of the winding up.

230A. (1) When any part of the property of a company which is being wound up consists of land of

any tenure burdened with onerous covenants, of shares or stock in companies, of unprofitable contracts,

or of any other property that is unsalable, or not readily saleable, by reason of its binding the possessor

thereof to the performance of any onerous act, or to the payment of any sum of money, the liquidator of

the company, notwithstanding that he had endeavoured to sell or has taken possession of the property,

or exercised any act of ownership in relation thereto, may, with the leave of the Court and subject to the

provisions of this section, by writing signed by him, at any time within twelve months after the

commencement of the winding up or such extended period as may be allowed by the Court, disclaim the

property:

Provided that, where any such property has not come to the knowledge of the liquidator within one

month after the commencement of the winding up, the power under this section of disclaiming the

property may be exercised at any time within twelve months after he has become aware thereof or such

extended period as may be allowed by the Court.

(2) The disclaimer shall operate to determine, as from the date of disclaimer, the rights, interests, and

liabilities of the company, and the property of the company, in or in respect of the property disclaimed,

but shall not, except so far as is necessary for the purpose of releasing the company and the property of

the company from liability, affect the rights or liabilities of any other person.

(3) The Court, before or on granting leave to disclaim, may require such notices to be given to person

interested, and impose such terms as a condition of granting leave, and make such other order in the

matter as the Court thinks just.

(4) The liquidator shall not be entitled to disclaim any property under this section in any case where

an application in writing has been made to him by any persons interested in the property requiring him

to decide whether he will or will not disclaim, and the liquidator has not, within a period of twenty-eight

days after the receipt of the application or such further period as may be allowed by the Court, given

notice to the applicant that he intends to apply to the Court for leave to disclaim, and in the case of a

contract, if the liquidator, after such an application as aforesaid, does not within the said period or

further period disclaim the contract, the company shall be deemed to have adopted it.

(5) The Court may, on the application of any person who is, as against the liquidator, entitled to the

benefit or subject to the burden of a contract made with the company, make an order rescinding the

contract on such terms as to payment by or to either party of damages for the non-performance of the

contract, or otherwise as the Court thinks just, and any damages payable under the order to any such

person may be proved by him as a debt in the winding up.

(6) The Court may, on an application by any person who either claims any interest in any disclaimed

property or is under any liability not discharged by this Act in respect of any disclaimed property, and

on hearing any such persons as it thinks fit, make an order for the vesting of the property in or the

delivery of the property to any persons entitled thereto, or to whom it may seem must that the property

should be delivered by way of compensation for such liability as aforesaid, or a trustee for him, and on

such terms as the Court thinks just, and on any such vesting order being made the property comprised

therein shall vest accordingly in the person therein named in that behalf without any conveyance or

assignment for the purpose:

Provided that, where the property disclaimed is of a leasehold nature, the Court shall not make a

vesting order in favour of any person claiming under the company whether as under-lessee or as

mortgagee except upon the terms of making that person __

(a) subject to the same liabilities and obligations as those to which the company was subject under

the lease in respect of the property at the commencement of the winding up; or

(b) if the Court thinks fit, subject only to the same liabilities and obligations as if the lease had been

assigned to that person at that date;

and in either event (if the case so requires) as if the lease had comprised only the property comprised in

the vesting order, and any mortgagee of under-lessee declining to accept a vesting order upon such

terms shall be excluded from all interest in and security upon the property, and, is there is no person

claiming under the company who is willing to accept an order upon such terms, the Court shall have

power to vest the estate and interest of the company in the property in any person liable, either

personally or in a representative character, and either alone or jointly with the company, to perform the

lessee’s covenants in the lease, freed and discharged from all estates, incumbrances and interests

created therein by the company.

(7) Any person injured by the operation of a disclaimer under this section shall be deemed to be a

creditor of the company to the amount of the injury, and may accordingly prove the amount as a debt in

the winding up.

231. (1) Any transfer, delivery of goods, payment, execution or other act relating to property which

would, if made or done by or against an individual, be deemed in his insolvency a fraudulent

preference, shall, if made or done by or against a company, be deemed, in the event of its being wound

up, a fraudulent preference of its creditors, and be invalid accordingly.

(2) For the purposes of this section the presentation of a petition for winding up in the case of a

winding up by or subject to the supervision of the Court, and a resolution for winding up in the case of a

voluntary winding up, shall be deemed to correspond with the act of insolvency in the case of an

individual.

(3) Any transfer or assignment by a company of all its property to trustees for the benefit of all its

creditors shall be void.

232. (1) Where any company is being wound up by or subject to the supervision of the Court, any

attachment, distress or execution put in force without leave of the Court against the estate or effects, or

any sale held without leave of the Court of any of the properties, of the company after the

commencement of the winding up shall be void.

(2) Nothing in this section applies to proceedings by the Government.

233. Where a company is being wound up, a floating charge on the undertaking or property of the

company created within three months of the commencement of the winding up shall unless it is proved

that the company immediately after the creation of the charge was solvent, be invalid except to the

amount of any cash paid to the company at the time of, or subsequently to the creation of, and in

consideration for, the charge, together with interest on that amount at the rate of five per cent.

perannum.

234. (1) The liquidator may, with the sanction of the Court when the company is being wound up by

the Court or subject to the supervision of the Court, and with the sanction of an extraordinary resolution

of the company in the case of a voluntary winding up, do the following things or any of them : __

(i) pay any classes of creditors in full;

 

(ii) make any compromise or arrangement with creditors or persons claiming to be creditors or

having or alleging themselves to have may claim, present or future, whereby the company may

be rendered liable;

(iii) compromise all calls and liabilities to calls, debts and liabilities capable to resulting in debts,

and all claims, present or future, certain or contingent, subsisting or supposed to subsist,

between the company and a contributory, or alleged contributory or other debtor or person

apprehending liability to the company, and all questions in any way relating to or affecting the

assets or the winding up of the company, on such terms as may be agreed, and take any security

for the discharge of any such call, debt, liability or claim, and give a complete discharge in

respect thereof.

(2) The exercise by the liquidator of the powers of this section shall be subject to the control of the

Court, and any creditor or contributory liquidator, the Court may, unless it appears that the failure or

neglect to comply was due to the liquidator not having in his hands sufficient assets of the company to

enable him so to do, direct that the costs of the application shall be borne by the liquidator personally.

238. If any person, upon any examination upon oath authorized under this Act, or in any affidavit,

deposition or solemn affirmation, in or about the winding up of any company under this Act, or

otherwise in or about any matter arising under this Act, intentionally gives false evidence, he shall be

liable to imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

238A. (1) If any person, being a past or present director, managing agent, manager or other officer of

a company which at the time of the commission of the alleged offence is being wound up, whether by or

under the supervision of the Court or voluntarily, or is subsequently ordered to be wound up by the

Court or subsequently passes a resolution for voluntary winding up __

(a) does not to the best of his knowledge and belief fully and truly discover to the liquidator all the

property, real and personal, of the company, and how and to whom and for what consideration

and when the company disposed of any part thereof, except such part as has been disposed of in

the ordinary way of the business of the company; or

(b) does not deliver up to the liquidator, or as he directs, all such part of the real and personal

property of the company as is in his custody or under his control, and which he is required by

law to deliver up; or

(c) does not deliver up to the liquidator, or as he directs, all books and papers in his custody or

under his belonging to the company and which he is required by law to deliver up; or

(d) within twelve months next before the commencement of the winding up or at any time thereafter

conceals any part of the property of the company to the value of one hundred rupees or upwards

or conceals any debt due to or from the company; or

(e) within twelve months next before the commencement of the winding up or at any time thereafter

fraudulently removes any part of the property of the company to the value of one hundred

rupees or upward; or

(f) makes any material omission in any statement relating to the affairs of the company; or

(g) knowing or believing that a false debt has been proved by any person under the winding up, fails

for the period of a month to inform the liquidator thereof; or

(h) after the commencement of the winding up prevents the production of any book paper affecting

or relating to the property or affairs of the company; or

(i) within twelve months next before the commencement of the winding up or at any time

thereafter, conceals, destroys, mutilates or falsifies, or is privy to the concealment, destruction,

mutilates or falsifies of, any book or paper affecting or relating to the property or affairs of the

company; or

(j) within twelve months next before the commencement of the winding up or at any time

thereafter, makes or is privy to the making of any false entry in any book or paper affecting or

relating to the property or affairs of the company; or

(k) within twelve months next before the commencement of the winding up or at any time

thereafter, fraudulently parts with, alters or makes any omission in, or is privy to the fraudulent

parting with, altering or making any omission in, any document affecting or relating to the

property or affairs of the company; or

(l) after the commencement of the winding up or at any meeting of the creditors of the company

within twelve months next before the commencement of the winding up, attempts to account for

any part of the property of the company by fictitious losses or expenses; or

(m) has within twelve months next before the commencement of the winding up or at any time

thereafter, by any false representation or other fraud, obtained any property for or on behalf of

the company on credit which the company does not subsequently pay for; or

(n) within twelve months next before the commencement of the winding up or at any time

thereafter, under the false pretence that the company is carrying on its business, obtains on

credit, for or on behalf of the company, any property which the company does not subsequently

pay for; or

(o) within twelve months next before the commencement of the winding up or at any time

thereafter, pawns, pledges or disposes of any property of the company which has been obtained

on credit and has not been paid for, unless such pawning, pledging or disposing is in the

ordinary way of the business of the company; or

(p) is guilty of any false representation or other fraud for the purpose of obtaining the consent of the

creditors of the may apply to the Court with respect to any exercise or proposed exercise of any

of these powers.

235. (1) Where, in the course of winding up a company, it appears that any person who has taken part

in the formation or promotion of the company, or any past or present director, manager or liquidator, or

any officer of the company has misapplied or retained or become liable or accountable for any money or

misapplied or retained or become liable or accountable for any money or property of the company, or

been quality of any misfeasance or breach of trust in relation to the company, the Court may, on the

application of the liquidator or of any creditor or contributory, made within three years from the date of

the first appointment of a liquidator in the winding up, or of the misapplication, retainer, misfeasance or

breach of trust, as the case may be, whichever is longer, examine into the conduct of the promoter,

director, manger, liquidator or officer, and compel him to repay or restore the money or property or any

part thereof respectively with interest at such rate as the Court thinks just, or to contribute such sum to

the assets of the company by way of compensation in respect of the misapplication, retainer,

misfeasance or breach of trust as the Court thinks just.

(2) This section shall apply notwithstanding that the offence if one for which the offender may be

criminally responsible.

236. If any director, manager, officer to contributory of any company being wound up destroys,

mutilates alters or falsifies or fraudulently secretes any books, papers or securities, or makes, or is privy

to the making of, any false or fraudulent entry in any register, book of account or document belonging

to the company with intent to defraud or deceive any person, he shall be liable to imprisonment for a

term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

237. (1) If it appears to the Court in the course of a winding up by, or subject to the supervision of, the

Court that any past or present director, manager or other officer, or any member, of the company has

been guilty of any offence in relation to the company for which he is criminally liable, the Court may,

either on the application of any person interested in the winding up or of its own motion, direct the

liquidator either himself to prosecute the offender or to refer the matter to the Registrar.

(2) If it appears to the liquidator in the course of a voluntary winding up that any past or present

director, manager or other officer, or any member, of the company has been guilty of any offence in

relation to the company for which he is criminally liable, he shall forthwith report the matter to the

Registrar and shall furnish to him such information and give to him such access to and facilities for

inspecting and taking copies of any documents, being information or documents in the possession or

under the control of the liquidator relating to the matter in question, as he may require.

(3) Where any report is made under sub-section (2) to the Registrar, he may, if he thinks fit, refer the

matter to the President of the Union for further inquiry, and the President of the Union shall thereupon

investigate the matter and may, if he thinks it expedient, apply to the Court for an order conferring on

any person designated by the President of the Union for the purpose with respect of the company

concerned all such powers of investigation the affairs of the company as are provided by this Act in the

case of a winding up by the Court.

(4) If on any report to the Registrar under sub-section (2) it appears to him that the case is not one in

which proceedings ought to be taken by him, he shall inform the liquidator accordingly, and thereupon,

subject to the previous sanction of the Court, the liquidator may himself take proceedings against the

offender.

(5) If it appears to the Court in the course of a voluntary winding up that any past or present director,

manager or other officer, or any member, of the company has been guilty as aforesaid, and that no

report with respect to the matter has been made by the liquidator to the registrar, the Court may, on the

application of any person interested in the winding up or of its own motion, direct the liquidator to make

such a report, and on a report being made accordingly the provisions of this section shall have effect as

though the report has been made in pursuance of the provisions of sub-section (2).

(6) If, where any matter is reported or referred to the Registrar under this section, he considers that the

case is one in which a prosecution ought to be instituted, he shall place the papers before the Attorney-

General or the Public Prosecutor and if advise to do so institute proceedings, and it shall be the duty of

the liquidator and of every officer and agent of the company past and present (other than the defendant

in the proceedings) to give him all assistance in connection with the prosecution which he is reasonably

able to give:

Provided that no prosecution shall be undertaken without first giving the accused person an

opportunity of making a statement in writing to the Registrar and of being heard thereon.

For the purposes of this sub-section, the expression “agent” in relation to a company shall be deemed

to include any banker or legal adviser of the company and any person employed by the company as

auditor, whether that person is or is not an officer of the company.

(7) If any person fails or neglects to give assistance in manner required by sub-section (6), the Court

may, on the application of the Registrar, direct that person to comply with the requirements of the said

sub-section, and where any such application is made with respect to a liquidator, the Court may, unless

it appears that the failure or neglect to comply was due to the liquidator not having in his hands

sufficient assets of the company to enable him so to do, direct that the costs of the application shall be

borne by the liquidator personally.

238. If any person, upon any examination upon oath authorized under this act, or in any affidavit,

deposition or solemn affirmation, in or about the winding up of any company under this Act, or

otherwise in or about any matter arising under this Act, intentionally gives false evidence, he shall be

liable to imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

238A. (1) If any person, being a past or present director, managing agent, manager or other officer of
a company which at the time of the commission of the alleged offence is being wound up, whether by or
under the supervision of the Court or voluntarily, or is subsequently ordered to be wound up by the
Court or subsequently passes a resolution for voluntary winding up __
(a) does not to the best of his knowledge and belief fully and truly discover to the liquidator all the
property, real and personal, of the company, and how and to whom and for what consideration
and when the company disposed of any part thereof, except such part as has been disposed of in
the ordinary way of the business of the company; or
(b) does not deliver up to the liquidator, or as he directs, all such part of the real and personal
property of the company as is in his custody or under his control, and which he is required by
law to deliver up; or
(c) does not deliver up to the liquidator, or as he directs, all books and papers in his custody or
under his control belonging to the company and which he is required by law to deliver up; or
(d) within twelve months next before the commencement of the winding up or at any time thereafter
conceals any part of the property of the company to the value of one hundred rupees or upwards
or conceals any debt due to or from the company; or
(e) within twelve months next before the commencement of the winding up or at any time thereafter
fraudulently removes any part of the property of the company to the value of one hundred rupees
or upwards; or
(f) makes any material omission in any statement relating to the affairs of the company; or
(g) knowing or believing that a false debt has been proved by any person under the winding up, fails
for the period of a month to inform the liquidator thereof; or
(h) after the commencement of the winding up prevents the production of any book or paper
affecting or relating to the property or affairs of the company; or
(i) within twelve months next before the commencement of the winding up or at any time
thereafter, conceals, destroys, mutilates or falsifies, or is privy to the concealment, destruction,
mutilation, or falsification of, any book or paper affection or relating to the property or affairs of
the company; or
(j) within twelve months next before the commencement of the winding up or at any time
thereafter, makes or is privy to the making of any false entry in any book or paper affecting or
relating to the property or affairs of the company; or
(k) within twelve months next before the commencement of the winding up or at any time
thereafter, fraudulently pars with, alters or makes any omission in, or is privy to the fraudulent
parting with, altering or making any omission in, any document affecting or relating to the
property or affairs of the company; or
(l) after the commencement of the winding up or at any meeting of the creditors of the company
within twelve months next before the commencement of the winding up, attempts to account for
any part of the property of the company by fictitious losses or expenses; or
(m) has within twelve months next before the commencement of the winding up or at any time
thereafter, by any false representation or other fraud, obtained any property for or on behalf of
the company on credit which the company does not subsequently pay for; or
(n) within twelve months next before the commencement of the winding up or at any time
thereafter, under the false pretence that the company is carrying on its business, obtains on
credit, for or on behalf of the company, any property which the company does not subsequently
pay for; or
(o) within twelve months next before the commencement of the winding up or at any time
thereafter, pawns, pledges or disposes of any property of the company which has been obtained
on credit and has not been paid for, unless such pawning, pledging or disposing is in the
ordinary way of the business of the company; or
(p) is guilty of any false representation or other fraud for the purpose of obtaining the consent of the
creditors of the company or any of them to an arrangement with reference to the affairs of the
company or to the winding up;
he shall be punishable, in the case of the offences mentioned respectively in clauses (m), (n), and (o) of
this sub-section, with imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years, and, in the case of other
offence, with imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years :
Provided that it shall be a good defense to a charge under any of clauses (b), (c), (d), (f), (n) and (o) if
the accused proves that he had no intent to defraud, and to a charge under any of clauses (a), (h), (i) and
(j) if he proves that he had no intent to conceal the state of affairs of the company or to defeat the law.
(2) Where any person pawns, pledges or disposes of any property in circumstances with amount to
an offence under clause (o) sub-section (1), every person who takes in pawn or pledge or otherwise
receives the property knowing it to be pawned, pledged or disposed of in such circumstances as
aforesaid shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years.
239. (1) Where by this Act the Court is authorized in relation to winding up to have regard to the
wishes of creditors or contributories, as proved to it by any sufficient evidence, the Court may, if it
thinks fit for the purpose of ascertaining those wishes, direct meetings of the creditors or contributories
to be called, held and conducted in such manner as the Court directs, and may appoint a person to act as
chairman of any such meeting and to report the result thereof to the Court.
(2) In the case of creditors, regard shall be had to the value of each creditor’s debt.
(3) In the case of contributories regard shall be had to the number of votes conferred on each
contributory by the articles.
240. When any company is being wound up, all documents of the company and of the liquidators
shall as between the contributories of the company, be prima facie evidence of the truth of all matters
purporting to be therein recorded.
241. After an order for a winding up by or subject to the supervision of the Court, the Court may make
such order for inspection by creditors and contributories of the company of its documents as the Court
thinks just, and any documents in the possession of the company may be inspected by creditors or
contributories accordingly, but no further or otherwise.
242. (1) When a company has been wound up and is about to be dissolved, the documents of the
company and of the liquidators may be disposed of as follows (that is to say): __
(a) in the case of winding up by or subject to the supervision of the Court, in such way as the Court
direct;
(b) in the case of a voluntary winding up, in such way as the company by extraordinary resolution
directs.
(2) After three years from the dissolution of the company, no responsibility shall rest on the company
or the liquidators, or any person to whom the custody of the documents has been committed, by reason
of the same not being forthcoming to any person claiming to be interested therein.
243. (1) Where a company has been dissolved, the Court may at any time within two years of the date
of the dissolution, on an application being made for the purpose by the liquidator of the company or by
any other person who appears to the Court to be interested, make an order, upon such terms as the Court
thinks fit, declaring the dissolution to have been void, and thereupon such proceedings may be taken as
might have been taken if the company had not been dissolved.
(2) It shall be the duty of the person on whose application the order was made, within twenty-one
days after the making of the order, to file with the Registrar a certified copy of the order, and if that
person fails so to do he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day during which
the default continues.
244. (1) Where a company is being wound up, if the winding up is not concluded within one year
after its commencement, the liquidator shall, once in each months, until the winding up is concluded,
file in Court or with the Registrar, as the case may be, a statement in the prescribed form and containing
the prescribed particulars with respect to the proceedings in and position of the liquidation.
(2) Any person stating himself in writing to be a creditor or contributory of the company shall be
entitled, by himself or by his agent, at all reasonable times, on payment of the prescribed fee, to inspect
the statement, and to receive a copy thereof or extract therefrom; buy any person untruthfully so stating
himself to be a creditor or contributory shall be deemed to be guilty of an offence under section 182 of
the Penal Code, and shall be punishable accordingly on the application of the liquidator.
(3) If a liquidator fails to comply with the requirements of this section, he shall be liable to a fine not
exceeding five hundred rupees for each day during which the default continues.
(4) When the statement is filed in Court a copy shall simultaneously be filed with the Registrar and
shall be kept by him along with the other records of the company.
244A. (1) Every liquidator of a company which is being wound up by the Court shall, in such manner
and at such time as may be prescribed, pay the money received by him into a scheduled bank:
Provided that if the Court is satisfied that for the purpose of carrying on the business of the company
or of obtaining advances or for any other reason it is for the advantage of the creditors or contributories
that the liquidator should have an account with any other bank, the Court may authorize the liquidator to
make his payments into or out of such other bank as the Court may select and thereupon those payments
shall be made in the prescribed manner.
(2) If any such liquidator at any time retains for more than ten days a sum exceeding five hundred
rupees, or such other amount as the Court may in any particular case authorize him to retain, then,
unless he explains the retention to the satisfaction of the Court, he shall pay interest on the amount so
retained in excess at the rate or such part of his remuneration as the Court may think just and to be
removed from his office by the Court, and shall be liable to pay any expenses occasioned by reason of
his default.
(3) A liquidator of a company which is being wound up shall open a special banking account and pay
all sums received by him as liquidator into such account.
245. *(1) Any affidavit required to be sworn under the provisions or for the purposes of this Part may
be sworn in the Union of Burma, or elsewhere before any Court, Judge or person lawfully authorized to
take and receive affidavits, or in any place outside the Union of Burma before any Consul, Vice-Consul
or Ambassador of His Britannic Majesty or the Union of Burma.
(2) All Courts, Judges, Justices, Commissioners and persons acting judicially in the Union of Burma
shall take judicial notice of the seal or stamp or signature (as the case may be) of any such Court, Judge,
person, Consul or [Vice-Consul or Ambassador]* attached, appended or subscribed to any such
affidavit or to any other document to be used for the purposes of this Part.
* Substituted by the Union of Burma (Adaptation of Laws) Order, 1948.

246. (1) The High Court may, from time to time, make rules* consistent with this Act and with the
Code of Civil Procedure concerning the mode of proceedings to be had for winding up a company in
such Court and in the Courts subordinate thereto, and for voluntary winding up (both members’ and
creditors’), for the holding of meetings of creditors and members in connection with proceedings under
section 153 of this Act, and for giving effect to the provisions hereinbefore contained as to the reduction
of the capital and the sub-divisions of the shares of a company, and generally for all applications to be
made to the Court under the provisions of this Act, and shall make rules providing for all matters
relating to the winding up of companies which, by this Act, are to be prescribed.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, the High Court may by such rules
enable or require all or any of the powers and duties conferred and imposed on the Court by this Act, in
respect of the matters following, to be exercised or performed by the official liquidator and subject to
the control of the Court, that is to say, the powers and duties of the Court in respect of __
(a) holding and conducting meetings to ascertain the wishes of creditors and contributories;
(b) settling lists of contributories and rectifying the register of members where required, and
collecting and applying the assets;
(c) requiring delivery of property or documents to the liquidator;
(d) making calls;
(e) fixing a time within which debts and claims must be proved:
Provided that the official liquidator shall not, without the special leave of the Court, rectify the
register of members, and shall not make any call without the special leave of the Court.
Removal of defunct Companies from Register
247. (1) Where the Registrar has reasonable cause to believe that a company is not carrying on
business or in operation, he shall send to the company by post a letter inquiring whether the company is
carrying on business or in operation.
(2) If the Registrar does not within one month of sending the letter receive any answer thereto, he
shall within fourteen days after the expiration of the month send to the company by post a registered
letter referring to the first letter, and stating that no answer thereto has been received and that, if an
answer is not received to the second letter within one month from the date thereof, a notice will be
published in the Gazette with a view to striking the name of the company off the register.
* See High Court Rules and Orders, and Burma Gazette, 1940, Part IV, page 1023.
(3) If the Registrar either receives an answer from the company to the effect that it is not carrying on
business or in operation, or does not within one month after sending the second letter receive any
answer, he may publish in the Gazette, and send to the company by post a notice that, at the expiration
of three months from the date of that notice, the name of the company mentioned therein will, unless
cause is shown to the contrary, be struck off the register and the company will be dissolved.
(4) If, in any case where a company is being wound up, the Registrar has reasonable cause to believe
either that no liquidator is acting or that the affairs of the company are fully wound up, and the returns
required to be made by the liquidator have not been made for a period of six consecutive months after
notice by the Registrar demanding the returns has been sent by post to the company, or to the liquidator
at his last known place of business, the Registrar may publish in the Gazette and sent to the company a
like notice as is provided in the last preceding sub-section.
(5) At the expiration of the time mentioned in the notice the Registrar may, unless cause to the
contrary is previously shown by the company, strike its name off the register, and shall publish notice
thereof in the Gazette, and, on the publication in the Gazette of this notice, the company shall be
dissolved: Provided that the liability (if any) of every director and member of the company shall
continue and may be enforced as if the company had not been dissolved.
(6) If a company or any member or creditor thereof feels aggrieved by the company having been
struck off the register, the Court, on the application of the company or member or creditor, may, if
satisfied that the company was at the time of the striking off carrying on business or in operation, or
otherwise that it is just that the company be restored to the register, order the name of the company to be
restored to the register, and thereupon the company shall be deemed to have continued in existence as if
its name had not been struck off; and the Court may by the order give such directions and make such
provisions as seem just for placing the company and all other persons in the same position, as nearly as
may be, as if the name of the company has not been struck off.
(7) A letter or notice under this section may be addressed to the company at its registered office, or,
if no office has been registered, to the care of some director, manager or other officer of the company,
or if there is no director, manager or other officer of the company whose name and address are known
to the Registrar, may be sent to each of the persons who subscribed the memorandum, addressed to him
at the address mentioned in the memorandum.
247 A. (1) Every foreign company or a company carrying on international trade shall surrender the
permit granted to it under section 27A to such authority as the President of the Union may direct, and
shall also notify such surrender to the Registrar within one month after the commencement of the
winding up.
(2) If a foreign company or company carrying on international trade makes default in complying
with the requirements of this section, the company, and every officer or agent of the company shall, on
conviction, be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty kyats for every day during which the default continues.
PART VI.
REGISTRATION OFFICE AND FEES.
248. (1) For the purposes of the registration of companies under this Act, there shall be offices at such
places as the President of the Union thinks fit, and no company shall be registered except at an office
within the Union of Burma.
(2) The President of the Union may appoint such Registrars and assistant Registrars as he thinks
necessary for the registration of companies under this Act, and may make regulations with respect to
their duties.
(3) The salaries of the persons appointed under this section shall be fixed by the President of the
Union.
(4) The President of the Union may direct a seal or seals to be prepared for the authentication of
documents required for or connected with the registration of companies.
(5) Any person may inspect the documents kept by the Registrar on payment of such fees as may be
appointed by the President of the Union, not exceeding one rupee for each inspection; and any person
may require a certificate of the incorporation of any company, or a copy or extract of any other
document or any part of any other document, to be certified by the Registrar on payment for the
certificate, certified copy or extract, of such fees as the President of the Union may appoint, not
exceeding three rupees for a certificate of incorporation, and not exceeding six annas for every hundred
words or fractional part thereof required to be copied.
(6) Whenever any act is by this Act directed to be done to or by the Registrar it shall, until the
President of the Union otherwise directs, be done to or by the existing Registrar of joint-stock
companies, or in his absence to or by such person as the President of the Union may for the time being

authorize; but, in the event of the President of the Union may for the time being authorize; but, in the
event of the President of the Union altering the constitution of the existing registry offices or any of
them, any such act shall be done to or by such officer and at such place with reference to the local
situation of the registered offices of the companies to be registered as the President of the Union may
appoint.
* Inserted by Act XXIII, 1955.
249. (1) There shall be paid to the Registrar in respect of the several matters mentioned in Table B in
the First Schedule the several fees therein specified, or such smaller fees as the President of the Union
may direct.
(2) All fees paid to the Registrar in pursuance of this Act shall be accounted for to the Government.
249A. (1) If a company, having made default in complying with any provision of this Act which
requires it to file with, deliver or send to the Registrar any return, account or other document, or to give
notice to him of any matter, fails to make good the default within fourteen days after the service of a
notice on the company requiring it to do so, the Court may, on an application made to the Court by any
member or creditor of the company or by the Registrar, make an order directing the company and any
officer thereof to make good the default within such time as may be specified in the order.
(2) Any such order may provide that all costs of and incidental to the application shall be borne by
the company or by any officers of the company responsible for the default.
(3) Nothing in this section shall be taken to prejudice the operation of any enactment imposing
penalties on a company or its officers in respect of any such default as aforesaid.
PART VII.
APPLICATION OF ACT TO COMPANIES FORMED AND REGISTERED UNDER
FORMER COMPANIES ACTS.
250. In the application of this Act to existing companies, it shall apply in the same manner in the case
of a limited company, other than a company limited by guarantee, as if the company had been formed
and registered under this Act as a company limited by shares; in the case of a company limited by
guarantee, as if the company had been formed and registered under this Act as a company limited by
guarantee; and, in the case of a company, other than a limited company, as if the company had been
formed and registered under this Act as an unlimited company:
Provided that __
(1) nothing in Table A in the First Schedule shall apply to a company formed and registered under
Act XIX of 1857* and Act VII of 1860*, or either of them, or under the Indian Companies Act,
1866*, or the Indian Companies Act, 1882*;
(2) reference, express or implied, to the date of registration shall be construed as a reference to the
date at which the company was registered under Act No. XIX of 1857* and Act No. VII or
1860*, or either of them, or under the Indian Companies Act, 1866*, or the Indian Companies
Act, 1882*, as the case may be.
251. This Act shall apply to every company registered but not formed under Act No. XIX of 1857*
and Act No. VII of 1860*, or either of them, or under the Indian Companies Act, 1866*, or the Indian
Companies Act, 1882*, in the same manner as it is hereinafter in this Act declared to apply to
companies registered but not formed under this Act:
Provided that reference, express or implied, to the date of registration shall be construed as a
reference to the date at which the company was registered under the said Acts or any of them.
252. A company registered under Act XIX of 1857* and Act VII of 1860*, or either of them, may
cause its shares to be transferred in the manner hitherto in use, or in such other manner as the company
may direct.
PART VIII.
COMPANIES AUTHROIZED TO REGISTER UNDER THIS ACT.
253. (1) With the exceptions and subject to the provisions mentioned and contained in this section, __
(i) any company consisting of seven or more members, which was in existence on the first day
of May, eighteen hundred and eight-two, including any company registered under Act No.
XIX of 1857* and Act No. VII of 1860,* or either of them, and
(ii) any company formed after the date aforesaid, whether before or after the commencement of
this Act, in pursuance of any Act of [Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Ireland]+ or other law in force in the Union of Burma or of letter Patent, or being otherwise
duly constituted according to law and consisting of seven or more members,
may at any time register under this Act as an unlimited company or as a company limited by shares, or
as a company limited by guarantee; and the registration shall not be invalid by reason that it has taken
place with a view to the company being wound up:
* India Acts XIX of 1857 and VII of 1860 were repealed by India Act X of 1866.
India Act X 1866 was repealed by India Act VI of 1882, and the latter Act, in its turn, was repealed by India Act VII of
1913.
+ Substituted by the Union of Burma (Adaptation of Laws) Order, 1948.
(2) Provided as follows: __
(a) a company having the liability of its members limited by Act of [Parliament of the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland]* or by any law in force in the Union of Burma or by
Letters Patent, and not being a joint-stock company as hereinafter defined, shall not register in
pursuance of this section;
(b) a company having the liability of its members limited by Act of [Parliament of the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland]* or by any law in force in the Union of Burma or by
Letters Patent shall not register in pursuance of this section as an unlimited company or as a
company limited by guarantee;
(c) a company that is not a joint-stock company as hereinafter defined shall not register in
pursuance of this section as a company limited by shares;
(d) a company shall not register in pursuance of this section without the assent of a majority of
such of its members as are present in person or by proxy (in cases where proxies are allowed by
the articles) at a general meeting summoned for the purpose;
(e) where a company not having the liability of its members limited by Act of [Parliament of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland]* or by any law in force in the Union of Burma or
by Letters Patent in about to register as a limited company, the majority required to assent as
aforesaid shall consist of not less than three-fourths of the members present in person or by
proxy at the meeting;
(f) where a company is about to register as a company limited by guarantee, the assent to its
being so registered shall be accompanied by a resolution declaring that each member undertakes
to contribute to the assets of the company, in the event of its being wound up while he is a
member or within one year afterwards, for payment of the debts and liabilities of the company
contracted before he ceased to be a member, and of the costs and expenses of winding up, and
for the adjustment of this rights of the contributories among themselves, such amount as may be
required not exceeding a specified amount.
* Substituted by the Union of Burma (Adaptation of Laws) Order, 1948.
(3) In computing any majority under this section when a poll is demanded regard shall be had to the
number of votes to which each member is entitled according to the articles.
(4) A company registered under the Indian Companies Act, 1882,* shall not be registered in
pursuance of this section.
254. For the purposes of this Part as far as relates to registration of companies as companies limited
by shares, a joint-stock company means a company having a permanent paid up or nominal share capital
of fixed amount divided into shares, also of fixed amount, or held and transferable as stock, or divided
and held partly in one way and partly in the other, and formed on the principle of having for its
members the holders of those shares or that stock, and no other persons; and such a company, when
registered with limited liability under this Act, shall be deemed to be a company limited by shares.
255. Before the registration in pursuance of this Part of a joint-stock company, there shall be delivered
to the Registrar the following documents (that is to say): __
(1) a list showing the names, addresses and occupations of all persons who on a day name in the
list, not being more than six clear days before the day of registration, were members of the
company, with the addition of the shares or stock held by them respectively, distinguishing,
in cases where the shares are numbered, each share by its number;
(2) a copy of any Act of [Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland],+ law,
Royal Carter, Letters instrument constituting or regulating the company; and
(3) if the company is intended to be registered as a limited company, a statement specifying the
Following particulars (that is to say): __
(a) The nominal share capital of the company and the number of shares into which it is
divided or the amount of stock of which it consists;
(b) The number of shares taken and the amount paid on each share;
* Repealed by India Act VII of 1913.
+ Substituted by the Union of Burma (Adaptation of Laws) Order, 1948.
(c) the name of the company, with the addition of the word “Limited” as the last word thereof,
and
(d) in the case of a company intended to be registered as a company limited by guarantee, the
resolution declaring the amount of the guarantee.
256. Before the registration in pursuance of this Part of any company not being a joint-stock
company, there shall be delivered to the Registrar __
(1) a list showing the names, addresses and occupations of the directors of the company; and

(2) a copy of any Act of [Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland],* law,
Letters Patent, deed of settlement, contract of co-partnery or other instrument constituting or
regulation the company; and
(3) in the case of a company intended to be registered as a company limited by guarantee, a copy
of the resolution declaring the amount of the guarantee.
257. The list of members and directors and any other particulars relating to the company required to
be delivered to the Registrar shall be duly verified by the declaration of any two or more directors or
other principal officers of the company.
258. The Registrar may require such evidence as he thinks necessary for the purpose of satisfying
himself whether any company proposing to be registered is or is not a joint-stock company as
hereinbefore defined.
259. (1) Where a banking company, which was in existence on the first day of May eighteen hundred
and eighty-two, proposes to register as a limited company, it shall, at least thirty days before so
registering, give notice of its intention so to register to every person who has a banking account with the
company, either by delivery of the notice to him, or by posting it to him at, or delivering it at, his last
known address.
(2) If the company omits to give the notice required by this section, then as between the company
and the person for the time being interested in the account in respect of which the notice ought to have
been given, and so far as respects the account down to the time at which notice is given, but not further
or otherwise, the certificate of registration with limited liability shall have no operation.
* Substituted by the Union of Burma (Adaptation of Laws) Order, 1948.
260. No fees shall be charge in respect of the registration in pursuance of this Part of a company if it is
not registered as a limited company, or if before its registration as a limited company the liability of the
shareholders was limited by some Act of [Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Ireland]* or law in force in the Union of Burma or by Letters Patent.
261. When a company is registered in pursuance of this Part with limited liability, the word “Limited”
shall form and be registered as part of its name.
262. On compliance with the requirements of this Part with respect to registration, and on payment of
such fees, if any, as are payable under Table B in the First Schedule, the Registrar shall certify under his
hand that the company applying for registration is incorporated as a company under this Act, and in the
case of a limited company that it is limited, and thereupon the company shall be incorporated and shall
have perpetual succession and a common sea.
263. All property, moveable and immoveable, including all interests and rights in, to an out of
property, moveable and immoveable, and including obligations and actionable claims as may belong to
or be vested in a company at the date of its registration in pursuance of this Part, shall, on registration,
pass to and vest in the company as incorporated under this Act for all the estate and interest of the
company therein.

264. The registration of a company in pursuance of this Part shall not affect the rights or liabilities of
the company in respect of any debt or obligation incurred or any contract entered into, by, to, with, or
on behalf of, the company before registration.
265. All suits and other legal proceedings which at the time of the registration of a company in
pursuance of this Part are pending by or against the company, or the public officer or any member
thereof, may be continued in the same manner as if the registration had not taken place; nevertheless
execution shall not issue against the effects of any individual member of the company on any decree or
order obtained in any such suit or proceeding; but, in the event of the property and effects of the
company being insufficient to satisfy the decree or order, an order may be obtained for winding up the
company.
* Substituted by the Union of Burma (Adaptation of Laws) Order, 1948.
266. When a company is registered in pursuance of this Part __
(i) all provisions contained in any Act of [Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain of
Ireland],* law in force in the Union of Burma, deed of settlement, contract of co-partnery,
Letters, Patent, or other instrument constituting or regulation the company, including, in the case
of a company registered as a company limited by guarantee, the resolution declaring the amount
of the guarantee, shall be deemed to be conditions and regulations of the company, in the same
manner and with the same incidence as if so much thereof as would, if the company had been
formed under this Act, have been required to be inserted in the memorandum, were contained in
a registered memorandum, and the residue thereof were contained in registered articles;
(ii) all the provisions of this Act shall apply to the company and the members, contributories and
creditors thereof, in the same manner in all respects as if it had been formed under this Act,
subject as follows (that is to say): __
(a) the regulations in Table A in the First Schedule shall not apply unless adopted by special
resolution;
(b) the provisions of this Act relating to the numbering of shares shall not apply to any jointstock
company whose shares are not numbered;
(c) subject to the provisions of this section, the company shall not have power to alter any
provision contained in any Act of [Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Ireland]* or law in force in the Union of Burma relating to the company;
(d) subject to the provisions of this section, the company shall not have power, without the
sanction of the President of the Union, to alter any provision contained in any Letters Patent
relating to the company;
(e) the company shall not have power to alter any provision contained in a Royal Charter or
Letters Patent with respect to the objects of the company;
(f) in the event of the company being wound up, every person shall be a contributory, in respect
of the debts and liabilities of the company contracted before registration, who is liable to pay
or contribute to the payment of any debt or liability of the company contracted before
registration, or to pay or contribute to the payment of any sum for the adjustment of the
rights of the members among themselves in respect of any such debt or liability, or to pay or
contribute to the payment of the cost and expenses of winding up the company, so far as
relates to such debts or liabilities as aforesaid; and every contributory shall be liable to
contribute to the assets of the company, in the course of the winding up, all sums due from
him in respect of any such liability as aforesaid; and in the event of the death or insolvency
of any contributory, the provisions of this Act with respect to the legal representatives and
heirs of deceased contributories, and with reference to the assignees of insolvent
contributories, shall apply;
(iii)the provisions of this Act with respect to __
(a) the registration of an unlimited company as limited;
(b) the powers of an unlimited company on registration as a limited company to increase the
nominal amount of its share capital and to provide that a portion of its share capital shall not
be capable of being called up except in the event of winding up;
(c) the power of a limited company to determine that a portion of its share capital shall not be
capable of being called up except in the event of winding up;
shall apply notwithstanding an provisions contained in any Act of [Parliament of the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland]*, law in force in the Union of Burma, Royal Charter,
deed of settlement, contract of co-partnery, Letters Patent or other instrument constituting or
regulating the company;
(iv) nothing in this section shall authorize the company to later any such provisions contained in any
deed of settlement, contract of co-partnery, Letters Patent or other instrument constituting or
regulating the company, as would, if the company had originally been formed under this Act,
have been required to be contained in the memorandum and are not authorized to be altered by
this Act;
(v) nothing in this Act shall derogate from any lawful power of altering its constitution or
regulations which may, by virtue of any Act of [Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland],* law in force in the Union of Burma, deed of settlement, contract of copartnery,
Letters Patent or other instrument constituting or regulating the company, be vested in
the company.
* Substituted by the Union of Burma (Adaptation of Laws) Order, 1948.
267. (1) Subject to the provisions of this section, a company registered in pursuance of this Part may
by special resolution alter the form of its constitution by substituting a memorandum and articles for a
deed of settlement.
(2) The provisions of this Act with respect to confirmation by the Court and registration of an
alteration of the objects of a company shall, so far as applicable, apply to an alteration under this section
with the following modification: __
(a) there shall be substituted for the printed copy of the altered memorandum required to be filed
with the Registrar a printed copy of the substituted memorandum and articles; and
(b) on the registration of the alteration being certified by the Registrar, the substituted
memorandum and articles shall apply to the company in the same manner as if it were a
company registered under this Act with that memorandum and those articles, and the
company’s deed of settlement shall cease to apply to the company.
(3) An alteration under this section may be made either with or without any alteration of the objects
of the company under this Act.
(4) In this section the expiration “deed of settlement” includes any contract of co-partnery or other
instrument constituting or regulating the company, not being an Act of [Parliament of the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland],* a law in force in the Union of Burma, a Royal Charter or
Letters Patent.
268. The provisions of this Act with respect to staying and restraining suits and legal proceedings

against a company at any time after the presentation of a petition for winding up and before the making

of a winding up order shall, in the case of a company registered in pursuance of this Part, where the
application to stay or restrain is by a creditor, extend to suits and legal proceedings against any
contributory of the company.
269. When an order has been made for winding up a company registered in pursuance of this Part, no
suit or other legal proceeding shall be commenced or proceeded with against the company or any
contributory of the company in respect of any debt of the company, except by leave of the Court and
subject to such terms as the Court may impose.
* Substituted by the Union of Burma (Adaptation of Laws) Order, 1948.
PART IX.
WINDING UP OF UNREGISTERED COMPANIES
270. For the purpose of this Part, the expression “unregistered company” shall not include a railway
company incorporate by Act of [Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland]* or by
a law in force in the Union of Burma, nor a company registered under the Indian Companies Act, 1866,
+ or under any Act repealed thereby, or under the Indian Companies Act, 1882, ++ or under this Act,
but save as aforesaid, shall include any partnership, association or company consisting of more than
seven members.
271. (1) Subject to the provisions of this Part, any unregistered company may be wound up under this
Act, and all the provisions of this Act with respect to winding up shall apply to an unregistered
company, with the following exceptions and additions : __
(i) the principal place of business of the company in the Union of Burma shall be deemed to be
the registered office of the company;
(ii) no unregistered company shall be wound up under this Act voluntarily or subject to
supervision;
(iii)the circumstances in which an unregistered company may be wound up are as follows (that is
to say): __
(a) if the company is dissolved, or has ceased to carry on business or is carrying on business
only for the purpose of winding up its affairs;
(b) if the company is unable to pay its debts;
(c) if the Court is of opinion that it is just and equitable that the company should be wound up;
(iv) an unregistered company shall, for the purposes of this Act, be deemed to be unable to pay
its debts ___
(a) if a creditor, by assignment or otherwise, to whom the company is indebted in a sum
exceeding five hundred rupees then due, has served on the company, by leaving at its
principal place of business, or by delivering to the secretary, or some director, manager or
principal officer of the company, or by otherwise serving in such manner as the Court may
approve or direct, a demand under his hand requiring the company to pay the sum so due,
and the company has for three weeks after the service of the demand neglected to pay the
sum, or to secure or compound for it to the satisfaction of the creditor;
* Substituted by the Union of Burma (Adaptation of Laws) Order, 1948.
+ India Act X of 1866 was repealed by India Act VI or 1882.
++ India Act VI of 1882 was repealed by India Act VII of 1913.
(b) if any suit or other legal proceeding has been instituted against any member for any debt or
demand due, or claimed to be due, from the company or from him in his character of
member, and notice in writing of the institution of the suit or other legal proceeding having
been served on the company by leaving the same at its principal place of business or by
delivering it to the secretary, or some director, manager or principal officer of the company
or by otherwise serving the same in such manner as the Court may approve or direct, the
company has not within ten days after service of the notice paid, secured or compounded
for the dept or demand, or procured the suit or other legal proceeding to be stayed, or
indemnified the defendant to his reasonable satisfaction against the suit or other legal
proceeding, and against all costs, damages and expenses to be incurred by him by reason
of the same;
(c) if execution or other process issued on a decree or order obtained in any Court in favour of
creditor against the company, or any member thereof as such, or any person authorized to
be used as nominal defendant on behalf of the company, is returned unsatisfied; and
(d) if it is otherwise proved to the satisfaction of the Court that the company is unable to pay
its debts.
(2) Nothing in this Part shall affect the operation of any enactment which provides for any
partnership, association or company being wound up, or being wound up as a company or as an
unregistered company under any enactment repealed by this Act, except that references in any such
first-mentioned enactment to any such repealed enactment shall be read as references to the
corresponding provision (if any) of this Act.
(3) Where a company incorporated outside the Union of Burma which has been carrying on
business in the Union of Burma it may be wound up as an unregistered company under this Part,
notwithstanding that it has been dissolved or otherwise ceased to exist as a company under or by virtue
of the laws of the country under which it was incorporated.
272. (1) In the event of an unregistered company being wound up, every person shall be deemed to
be a contributory who is liable to pay or contribute to the payment of any debt or liability of the
company, or to pay or contribute to the payment of any sum for the adjustment of the rights of the
members among themselves, or to pay or contribute to the payment of the costs and expenses of
winding up the company, and every contributory shall be liable to contribute to the assets of the
company all sums due from him in respect of any such liability as aforesaid.
(2) In the event of any contributory dying or being adjudged insolvent, the provisions of this Act
with respect to the legal representatives and heirs of deceased contributories, and to the assignees of
insolvent contributories, shall apply.
273. The provisions of this Act with respect to staying and restraining suits and legal proceedings
against a company at any time after the presentation of a petition for winding up and before the making
of a winding up order shall, in the case of an unregistered company, where the application to stay or
restrain is by a creditor, extend to suits and legal proceedings against any contributory of the company.
274. Where an order has been made for winding up an unregistered company, no suit or other legal
proceedings shall be proceeded with or commenced against any contributory of the company in respect
of any debt of the company, except by leave of the Court, and subject to such terms as the Court may
impose.
275. If an unregistered company has no power to sue and be used in a common name, or if for any
reason it appears expedient, the Court may by the winding up order or by any subsequent order, direct
that all or any part of the property, moveable or immoveable, including all interests and rights in, to and
out of property, moveable and immoveable, and including obligations and actionable claims as may
belong to the company or to trustees on its behalf, is to vest in the official liquidator by his official
name, and thereupon the property or the part thereof specified in the order shall vest accordingly; and
the official liquidator may, after giving such indemnity (if any) as the Court may direct, bring or defend
in his official name any suit or other legal proceeding relating to that property, or necessary to be
brought or defended for the purposes of effectually winding up the company and recovering its
property.
276. The provisions of this Part with respect to unregistered companies shall be in addition to, and
not in restriction of, any provisions hereinbefore in this Act contained with respect to winding up
companies by the Court, and the Court or official liquidator may exercise any powers or do any act in
the case of unregistered companies which might be exercised or done by it or him in winding companies
formed and registered under this Act; but an unregistered company shall not, except in the event of its
being wound up, be deemed to be a company under this Act, and then only to the extent provided by
this Part.
PART X.
COMPANIES ESTABLISHED OUTSIDE THE UNION OF BURMA.
+ 277. * * * * *
277A. Restriction on sale and offer for sale of shares
(1) It shall not be lawful for any person __
(a) to issue, circulate or distribute in the Union of Burma any prospectus offering for subscription
shares in or debentures of a company incorporated outside the Union of Burma, whether the
company has or has not established, or when formed will or will not establish, a place of
business in the Union of Burma, unless __
(i) before the issue, circulation or distribution of the prospectus in the Union of Burma a copy
thereof, certified by the chairman and two other directors of the company as having been
approved by resolution of the managing body, has been delivered for registration to the
Registrar;
(ii) the prospectus states on the face of it that the copy has been so delivered;
(iii)the prospectus is dated ; and
(iv) the prospectus otherwise complies with this Part; or
(b) to issue to any person in the Union of Burma a form of application for shares in or debentures
of such a company or intended company as aforesaid, unless the form is issued with a prospectus
which complies with this Part:
Provided that this provision shall not apply if it is shown that the form of application was issued in

connection with a bona fide invitation to a person to enter into an underwriting agreement
with respect to the shares or debentures.
(2) This section shall not apply to the issue to existing members or debenture holders of a company of
a prospectus or form of application relating to shares in or debentures of the company, whether an
applicant for shares or debentures will or will not have the right to renounce in favour of other persons,
but, subject as aforesaid, this section shall apply to a prospectus or form of application whether issued
on or with reference to the formation of a company or subsequently.
+ Deleted by Act XXIII, 1955.
(3) Where any document by which any shares in or debentures of a company incorporated outside the
Union of Burma are offered for sale to the public would, if the company concerned has been a company
within the meaning of this Act, have been deemed by virtue of section 98A to be a prospectus issued by
the company, that document shall be deemed to be, for the purposes of this section, a prospectus issued
by the company.
(4) An offer of shares or debentures for subscription or sale to any person whose ordinary business or
part of whose ordinary business it is to buy or sell shares or debentures, whether as principal or agent,
shall not be deemed an offer to the public for the purposes of this section.
(5) Any person who is knowingly responsible for the issue, circulation or distribution of any
prospectus, or for the issue of a form of application for shares or debentures, in contravention of the
provisions of this section shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five thousand rupees.
(6) In this section and in section 277B, the expressions “prospectus”, “shares” and “debentures” have
the same meanings as when used in relation to a company incorporated under this Act.
277B. Requirements as to prospectus.
(1) In order to comply with this Part a prospectus, in addition to complying with the provisions of
sub-clauses (ii) and (iii) of clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 277A, must __
(a) contain particulars with respect to the following matters: __
(i) the objects of the company;
(ii) the instrument constituting or defining the constitution of the company;
(iii) the enactments or provisions having the force of an enactment, by or under which the
incorporation of the company was effected;
(iv) an address in the Union of Burma where the said instrument, enactments or provisions, or
copies thereof, an if the same are in a foreign language a translation thereof in the English
language certified in the prescribed manner, can be inspected;
(v) the date on which and the country in which the company was incorporated;
(vi) whether the company has established a place of business in the Union of Burma and, if so,
the address of its principal office in the Union of Burma:
Provided that the provisions of sub-clauses (i), (ii) and (iii) of this cause shall not apply in the
case of a prospectus issued more than two years after the date at which the company is entitled
to commence business:
(b) subject to the provision of this section, state the matters specified in sub-section (1A) of
section 93 and set out the reports specified in that section:
Provided that __
(i) where any prospectus is published as a newspaper advertisement, it shall be a sufficient
compliance with the requirement that the prospectus must specify the objects of the company if
the advertisement specifies the primary object with which the company was formed, and
(ii) in section 93 of this Act a reference to the articles of the company shall be deemed to be a
reference to the constitution of the company.
(2) Any condition requiring or binding any applicant for shares or debentures to waive compliance
with any requirement of this section, or purporting to affect him with notice of any contract, document,
or matter not specifically referred to in the prospectus, shall be void.
(3) In the event of non-compliance with or contravention of any of the requirements of this section, a
director or other person responsible for the prospectus shall not incur any liability by reason of the noncompliance
or contravention if __
(a) as regards any matter not disclosed, he proves that he was not cognizant thereof, or
(b) he proves that the non-compliance or contravention arose from an honest mistake of fact on
his part, or
(c) the non-compliance or contravention was in respect of matters which, in the opinion of the
Court dealing with the case, were immaterial or were otherwise such as ought, in the
opinion of that Court, having regard to all the circumstances of the case, reasonably to be
excused:
Provided that in the event of failure to include in a prospectus a statement with respect to the matters
specified in clause (n) of sub-section (1) of section 93, no director or other person shall incur any
liability in respect of the failure unless it be proved that he had knowledge of the matters not disclosed.
(4) Nothing in this section shall limit or diminish any liability which any person may incur under the
general law or this Act, apart from this section.

277C. Restriction on canvassing for sale of shares.

(1) Is shall not be lawful for any person to go from house to house offering shares of a

company incorporated outside the Union of Burma for subscription or purchase to the public or any

member of the public.

(2) In this section the expression “house” shall not include an office used for business purposes.

(3) Any person acting in contravention of this section shall be liable to a fine not exceeding on

hundred rupees.

277D. The provisions of sections 109 to 117, both inclusive, and 120 to 125A, both inclusive, shall

extend to charges on properties in the Union of Burma which are created and to charges on property in

the Union of Burma which is acquired after the 15th January, 1937,* by a company incorporated outside

the Union of Burma which has an established place of business in the Union of Burma.

277E. The provisions of sections 118 and 119 shall mutatis mutandis apply to the case of all

companies incorporated outside the Union of Burma but having an established place of business in the

Union of Burma, and the provisions of section 130 shall apply to such companies to the extent of

requiring them to keep at their principal place to business in the Union of Burma the books of account

required by that section with respect to money received and expended, sales and purchase made, and

assets and liabilities in relation to its business in the Union of Burma.

277EA. The provisions of section 9, 19 and 22 shall apply to all companies incorporated outside the

Union of Burma but having an established place of business in the Union of Burma :

Provided that the Registrar shall, notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in clause (c) of

section 8 and clause (c) of section 19, retain and register the memorandum and the articles (if any) if a

copy thereof duly certified by a director in that behalf setting out, inter alia, the name, address,

nationality and description of each subscriber and those of the attesting witnesses to the memorandum

and the articles (if any) is filed with him.

277EB. (1) Every company incorporated outside the Union of Burma which ahs an established place

of business in the Union of Burma having no memorandum shall file with the Registrar a copy of the

charter, statutes or other instruments constituting or defining the constitution of the company, certified

by a director, and, if the said document is not written in the Burmese language a translation thereof duly

certified by a director in that behalf shall be filed.

* Date of commencement of the Indian Companies (Amendment) Act, 1936 (India Act XXII, 1936)

+ Inserted by Act XXIII, 1955.

(2) Every company incorporated outside the Union of Burma but having an establish place of

business in the Union of Burma shall, in every year, file with the Registrar __

(i) in a case where by the law for the time being in force of the country in which the company

is incorporates such company is required to file with the public authority an annual

balance-sheet together with a statement showing the holding of its shares classified

according to the nationality of the holders of such shares, and if the balance-sheet does

not contain all the information provided for in the form marked H in the Third Schedule,

such supplementary statements as shall furnish such information; or

(ii) in a case where no such provision is made by the law for the time being in force of the

county in which the company is incorporated such a statement in the form of a balancesheet,

together with a statement showing the holding of its shares classified according to

the nationality of the holders of such shares, as such company would, if it were a

company formed and registered under this Act, be required to file in accordance with the

provisions of this Act.

(3) If any company makes default in complying with the requirements of this section, the

company, and every officer or agent of the company who is knowingly a party to the default shall, on

conviction, be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty kyats for every day during which the default continues.

PART XA.

BANKING COMPANIES.

277F. A “banking company” means a company which carries on as its principal business the accepting

of deposits of money on current account or otherwise, subject to withdrawal by cheque, draft or order,

notwith-standing that it engages in addition in any one or more of the following forms of business,

namely:__

(1) the borrowing, raising or taking up of money; the lending or advancing of money either upon

or without security; the drawing, making, accepting, discounting, buying, selling collecting

and dealing in bills of exchange, hundis, promis-sory notes, coupons, drafts, bills of lading,

railway receipts, warrants, debentures, certificates, scrips and other instruments, and

securities whether transferable or negotiable or not; the granting and issuing of letters of

credit, travelers cheques and circular notes; the buying, selling and dealing in bullion and

specie; the buying and selling of foreign exchange including foreign banks notes; the

acquiring, holding, issuing on commission, underwriting and dealing in stock, funds, shares,

debentures, debenture stock, bonds, obligations, securities and investments of all kinds; the

purchasing and selling of bonds, scrips or other forms of securities on behalf of constituents

or others; the negotiating of loans and advances; the receiving of all kinds of bonds, scrips or

valuables on deposit, or for safe custody or otherwise; the collecting and transmitting of

money and securities;

(2) acting as agents for Governments or local authorities or for any other person or persons; the

carrying on of agency business of any description other than the business of a managing

agent, including the power to act as attorneys and to give discharges and receipts;

(3) contracting for public and private loans and negotiating and issuing the same;

(4) the promoting, effecting, insuring, guaranteeing, underwriting, participating in managing and

carrying out of any issue, public or private, of State, municipal or other loans, or of shares,

stock, debentures, or debenture stock of any company, corporation or association, and the

lending of money for the purpose of any such issue ;

(5) carrying on and transacting very kind of guarantee and indemnity business ;

(6) promoting or financing or assisting in promoting or financing any business undertaking or

industry, either existing or new, and developing or forming the same either through the

instrumentality of syndicates or otherwise ;

(7) acquisition by purchase, lease, exchange, hire or otherwise of any property immoveable or

moveable and any rights or privileges which the company may think necessary or convenient

to acquire, or the acquisition of which in the opinion of the company is likely to facilitate the

realization of any securities held by the company or to prevent or diminish any apprehended

loss or liability;

(8) managing, selling and realizing all property, moveable and immoveable, which may come

into the possession of the company in satisfaction or part satisfaction of any of its claims;

(9) acquiring and holding and generally dealing with any property and, any right, title or interest

in any property, moveable or immoveable, which may form part of the security for any loans

or advance or which may be connected with any such security;

(10) undertaking and executing trusts;

(11) undertaking the administration of estates as executor, trustee or otherwise;

(12) taking or otherwise acquiring and holding shares in any other company having objects

similar to those of the company;

(13) establishing and supporting or aiding in the establishment and support of associations,

institutions, funds, trusts and conveniences calculated to benefit employees or ex-employees

of the company or the dependents or connections of such persons; granting pensions and

allowances and making payments towards insurance; subscribing to or guaranteeing moneys

for charitable or benevolent objects or for any exhibition or for any public, general or useful

objects;

(14) the acquisition, construction, maintenance and alteration of any building or works necessary

or convenient for the purposes of the company;

(15) selling, improving, managing, developing, exchanging, leasing, mortgaging, disposing of,

or turning into account or otherwise dealing with all or any part of the property and rights of

the company;

(16) acquiring and undertaking the whole or any part of the business of any person or company,

when such business is of a nature enumerated or described in this section;

(17) doing all such other things as are incidental or conducive to the promotion or advancement

of the business of the company.

277G. (1) No company formed after the 15th January, 1937,* for the purpose of carrying on business as

banking company, or which uses as part of the name under which it propose to carry on business the

word “bank”, “banker” or “banking,” shall be registered under this Act unless the memorandum limits

the objects of the company to the carrying on of the business of accepting deposits of money on current

account or otherwise, subject to withdrawal by cheque, draft or otherwise, along with some or all of the

form of business specified in section 277F.

* Date of commencement of the Indian Companies (Amendment) Act, 1936 India (Act XXII, 1936)

(2) No banking company, whether incorporated in or outside the Union of Burma, shall after the

expiry of two years from the said date carry on any form of business other than those specified in

section 277F:

Provided that the President of the Union may, by notification in the Gazette, specify in addition

to the businesses set forth in clauses (1) to (17) of section 277F other forms of business which it may be

lawful under this section for a banking company to engage in.

277H. No banking company shall after the expiry of two years from the 15th January, 1937, *

employ or be managed by a managing agent other than a banking company for the management of the

company.

277I. Notwithstanding anything contained in section 103, no banking company incorporated

under this Act after the 15th January, 1937, * shall commence business unless shares have been allotted

to an amount sufficient to yield a sum of at least fifty thousand rupees as working capital, and unless a

declaration duly verified by an affidavit signed by the directors and the manager that such a sum has

been received by way of paid-up capital has been filed with the Registrar.

277J. No banking company shall create any charge upon any unpaid capital of the company,

and any such charge shall be invalid.

277K. (1) Every banking company shall, after the 15th January, 1937, * maintain a reserve fund.

(2) Every banking company shall out of the declared profits of each year, and before any

dividend is declared, transfer a sum equivalent to not less than twenty per cent. of such profits to the

reserve fund until the amount of the said fund is equal to the paid-up capital.

(3) A banking company shall investment the amount standing to the credit of its reserve fund in

[securities issued or guaranteed by the Union Government], + or keep it deposited in a special account

to be open by the company for the purpose in a schedule bank [or in the Union of Bank Burma]:++

* Date of commencement of the Indian Companies (Amendment) Act, 1936 (India Act XXII, 1936).

+ Substituted by Act IX, 1952.

++ Inserted ibid.

Provided that the provision of the sub-section shall not apply to a banking company incorporated

before the 15th January, 1937, * till after the expiry of two years from the said date.

+ (4) Nothing in this section shall apply to a schedule bank.

++277L. If default is made in complying with the requirements of section 277G, section 277H,

section 277J, section 277K or section 277M, every director or other officer of the company who is

knowingly and willfully a party to the default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred rupees

for every day during which the default continues.

277M. A banking company shall not form or hold shares in any subsidiary company, except a

subsidiary company of its own formed for the purpose of undertaking and executing trusts, undertaking

the administration of estates as executor, trustee or otherwise, and such other purposes set forth in

section 277F as are incidental to the business of accepting deposits of money on current account or

otherwise.

277N. (1) The Court may, on the application of a banking company which is temporarily unable

to meet its obligations, make an order staying the commencement or continuance of all actions and

proceedings against the company for a fixed period of time on such terms ad conditions as it shall think

fit and proper, and may from time to time extend the period.

(2) No such application shall be maintainable unless accompanied by a report of the Registrar:

Provided, however, the Court may, for sufficient reasons, grant interim relief even if the

application is not accompanied by such report.

(3) The Registrar shall for the purposes of his report be entitle at the cost of the company to

investigate the financial condition of the company, and for such purpose to have the books and

document of the company examined by an accountant holding a certificate issue under section 144.

* Date of commencement of the India Companies (Amendment) Act, 1936 (India Act XXII, 1936).

+ Inserted by Act IX, 1952,

++ Substituted ibid.

PART XI.

SUPPLEMENTAL.

Legal proceedings, offences, etc.

278. (1) No Court inferior to that of a Magistrate of the first class shall try any offence against this

Act.

(2) * * * *

(3) Notwithstanding anything in the Code of Criminal Procedure, every offence against this Act shall,

for the purpose of the said Code, be deemed to be non-cognizable.

279. The Court imposing any fine under this Act may direct that the whole or any part thereof be

applied in or towards payment of the costs of the proceedings, or in or towards the rewarding of the

person on whose information the fine is recovered.

280. Where a limited company is plaintiff or petitioner in any suit or other legal proceeding, any

Court having jurisdiction in the matter may, if it appears that there is reason to believe that the company

will be unable to pay the costs of the defendant if successful in his defence, require sufficient security to

be given for those costs, any may stay all proceedings until the security is given.

281. (1) If, in any proceeding for negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust against a

person to whom this section applies, it appears to the Court hearing the case that person is or may be

liable in respect of the negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust, but that he has acted

honestly and reasonably, and that having regard to all the circumstances of the case, including those

connected with his appointment, he ought fairly to be excused for the negligence, default, breach of

duty or breach of trust, the Court may relieve him, either wholly or partly, from his liability on such

terms as the Court may think fit.

(2) Where any person to whom this section applies has reason to apprehend that any claim will or

might be made against him in respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust, he

may apply to the Court for relief, and the Court on any such application shall have the same power to

relieve him as under this section it would have had if it had been a Court before which proceedings

against that person for negligence, default, breach of duty or beach of trust had been brought.

(3) The persons to whom this section applies are the following: __

(a) directors of company;

(b) managers and managing agents of a company;

(c) officers of a company;

(d) persons employed by a company as auditors, whether they are or are not officers of the

company.

282. Whoever in any return, report, certificate, balance-sheet or other document, required by or for

the purposes of any of the provisions of this Act, willfully makes a statement false in any material

particular, either description for term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

282A. Any director, managing agent, manager or other officer or employee of a company who

wrongfully obtains possession of any property of a company, or having any such property in his

possession wrongfully withholds it or willfully applies it to purposes other than those expressed or

directed in the articles and authorized by this Act, shall, on the complaint of the company or any

creditor or contributory thereof, be punishable with fine not exceeding one thousand rupees, and may be

ordered by the Court trying the offence to deliver up or refund, within a time to be fixed by the Court,

any such property improperly obtained or wrongfully withheld or willfully misapplied, or in default to

suffer imprisonment for a period not exceeding two years.

282B. (1) All moneys or securities deposited with a company by its employees in pursuance of their

contracts of service with the company shall be kept or deposited by the company in a special account to

be opened by the company for the purpose in a scheduled bank, and no portion thereof shall be utilized

by the company except for the purposes agreed to in the contract of service.

(2) Where a provident fund has been constituted by a company for its employees or any class of

its employees, all moneys contributed to such fund (whether by the company or by the employees) or

accruing by way of interest or otherwise to such fund after the 15th January, 1937, * [shall be either

deposited in a Post Office Savings Bank Account or invested]* in securities mentioned or referred to in

clauses (a) to (e) of section 20 of the Trusts Act, and all moneys belonging to such fund at the said date

[which are not so deposited or invested shall be so deposited or invested]* in such securities by annual

installments not exceeding ten in number and not less in amount in any year than one-tenth of the whole

amount of such moneys.

(3) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in the rules of any fund to which sub-section (2)

applies or in any contract between a company and its employees, no employee shall be entitled to

receive, in respect of such portion of the amount to his credit in such fund as is invested in accordance

with the provisions of sub-section (2), interest at a rate exceeding the rate of interest yielded by such

investment.

(4) An employee shall be entitled, on request made in this behalf to the company, to see the bank’s

receipt for any money or security such as is referred to in sub-section (1) and sub-section (2).

(5) Any director, managing agent, manager or other officer of the company who knowingly

contravenes or permits or authorizes the contravention of the provisions of this section shall be liable on

conviction to a fine not exceeding five hundred rupees.

283. If any person or persons trade or carry on business under any name or title of which “Limited”

is the last word, that person or those persons shall, unless duly incorporated with limited liability, be

liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees for every day upon which that name or title has been used.

284. The provisions of this Act with respect to winding up shall not apply to any company of which

the winding up has commenced before the commencement of this Act, but every such company shall be

wound up in the same manner and with the same incidents ad if this Act had not been passed, and, for

the purposes of the winding up, the Indian Companies Act, 1882, shall be deemed to remain in full

force.

285. Every instrument of transfer or other document made before the commencement of this Act, in

pursuance of any enactment hereby repealed, shall be of the same force as if this Act had not been

passed, and for the purposes of that instrument or document the repealed enactment shall be deemed to

remain in full force.

* Substituted by Act XXVII, 1950.

286. (1) The offices existing at the commencement of this Act for registration of joint-stock companies shall be continued as if they had been established under this Act.

(2) Registers of companies kept in any such existing offices shall respectively be deemed part of

the registers of companies to be kept under this Act.

(3) The existing Registrars, assistant Registrars and officers in those offices shall, during the

pleasure of the President of the Union, hold the offices and receive the salaries hitherto held and

received by them, but subject to any regulations of the President of the Union with regard to the

execution of their duties.

287. Nothing in this Act shall affect the provisions of the Life Assurance Companies Act or of the

Provident Insurance Societies Act.

 

 


မိတ်ဆွေ ပြည်ထောင်စု သားရောင်းရင်းများ ခင်ဗျား... ဒီစာမျက်နှာ သို့မဟုတ် ဒီဥပဒေနဲ့ ပတ်သက်ပြီး သင်ဘာပြောချင် ပါသလဲ? သင် ဘယ်လို မြင်ပါသလဲ? ထောက်ခံသလား? ကန့်ကွက်သလား? ဘယ်အပိုင်းက ခေတ်နဲ့ မညီဘူး ဖြစ်နေသလဲ? ဘယ်အပိုင်းကို ဦးစားပေး ပြင်သင့်တယ် ထင်သလဲ?
  • ကြောက်လို့ ဘာမှ မပြောဘဲ နေတာဟာ အဂတိ လိုက်စားတာပါ။ ‘ဘယာဂတိ’ လို့ ခေါ်ပါတယ်။ ဒါတွေ ရပ်ဘို့ လိုပါတယ်။ ပွင့်လင်းတဲ့ လူ့ဘောင် တစ်ခု ဖြစ်လာဘို့ ကျွန်တော်တို့ နိုင်ငံသားတွေကို အားပေး ရပါမယ်။ ပျိုးထောင် ရပါမယ်။ မိမိအမြင်ကို လွတ်လပ်စွာ ဆွေးနွေးတာ၊ တိုင်ပင် နှီးနှောတာ ဒီမိုကရေစီပါ။ ဆွေးနွေးပါ။ ဝေဖန်ပါ။ အားပေးပါတယ်။ ကျွန်တော်တို့ အားလုံးကိုယ်တိုင်လည်း အဝေဖန်ခံနိုင်အောင် ကြိုးစားရပါမယ်။  သဘောထား ကြီးအောင်ကြိုးစားပြီး။ agree to disagree ဆိုတာကို ဒီမိုကရေစီ နည်းကျ ကျင့်ကြံကြရပါမယ်။
  • မိမိ လုပ်ရပ်အားလုံးကို မိမိ တာဝန်ယူရမယ်ဆိုတာလည်း ဒီမိုကရေစီပါ။ ဆဲဆိုတာတွေ၊ မလုပ်ဘဲ ချက်ကျလက်ကျ ပြောဆိုဆွေးနွေး စေချင်ပါတယ်။ မေတ္တာရပ်ခံ လိုပါတယ်။ 
  • မတရားတာတွေ ဒီမိုကရေစီနည်းနဲ့ ရပ်တန့်ဘို့က ဒီလို ဆွေးနွေးဘို့ များများ လိုပါတယ်။ ဒီမှာ ဆွေးနွေးတာတွေကို law-maker တွေ၊ လွှတ်တော် ကိုယ်စားလှယ်တွေ မြင်အောင်၊ ဖတ်ဖြစ်အောင် ကျွန်တော်တို့ ကြိုးစား နေပါတယ်။ 
  • ကမ္ဘာမှာ အတိုးတက်ဆုံး အမေရိကန် ပြည်ထောင်စု ဆိုတာ ကမ္ဘာမှာ ဥပဒေ အများဆုံး ရှိတဲ့ တိုင်းပြည်ပါ။ ဆိုလိုတာက ချုပ်ချယ်မှု အများဆုံး တိုင်းပြည်ပါ။ ကာကွယ်သင့်တာတွေကို အကာအကွယ် အများဆုံး ပေးတဲ့ တိုင်းပြည်ပါ။ တစ်ချိန်တည်းမှာ ကမ္ဘာမှာ အလွတ်လပ်ဆုံး တိုင်းပြည်ပါ။ မိမိတို့ ချစ်တဲ့ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံကို the land of opportunities ဖြစ်လာအောင် ဝိုင်းဝန်း အကြံပေး ကြပါ။ ပြုပြင် ပေးကြပါလို့ နှိုးဆော် လိုက်ပါရစေ။

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ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံကို သင့်ဖုန်းပေါ်မှာ ဖတ်နိုင်

Myanmar constitution app for Androidယခု လက်ရှိ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံ ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံ အခြေခံ ဥပဒေကို သင့် Android ဖုန်းပေါ်မှာ အလွယ်တကူ ဖတ်နိုင်အောင် mobile app ထုတ်ထားပါတယ်။ အခမဲ့ ရယူနိုင်ပါတယ်။ Myanmar Constitution app for Android mobiles. Download here.